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水生植物滤床技术改善富营养化水体水质的研究 【作者】宋海亮 【导师】吕锡武

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.cRi~*gCB7q0【作者】宋海亮 【导师】吕锡武水利论文5I$_9P4n?,e
【作者基本信息】东南大学,环境工程,2005年,博士

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&}|cd9d2@s Cg0【中文摘要】 水生植物滤床是将植物净化和物理过滤方式相结合的一种新型无基质型人工湿地系统,主要用于净化富营养化地表水。本文在太湖湖滨开展了水生植物滤床净化受污染河水的中试研究,取得了以下主要结果:对水生植物的品种进行了筛选,确定空心菜和水芹菜分别为夏秋季节和冬春季节最适合于水生植物滤床栽培的可食用水生蔬菜品种。全面考察了水生植物滤床去除氮、磷的工艺特点。最佳水力负荷为4.0 m3/(m2·d)、水深为10cm,此运行条件下水生植物滤床对总氮、总磷的全年平均去除率为17.3%和24.1%,全年平均去除负荷为1.539 g/(m2·d)和0.232 g/(m2·d)。系统对总氮、总磷的去除效果优于对溶解态氮、磷的去除效果。蔬菜收割频率对氮磷去除有一定影响,空心菜以每月收割一次为宜。水力负荷在3.0~4.0 m3/(m2·d)之间运行时可确保水生植物滤床取得经济效益。通过对水生植物滤床中的底泥硝化潜力、反硝化潜力进行动力学分析,发现滤床中游硝化潜力大、上游反硝化潜力大,这样的分布对除氮不利。通过荧光原位杂交(FISH)技术测定底泥中的硝酸菌、亚硝酸菌数量及空间分布,发现硝化潜力的分布与底泥中亚硝酸菌密度的...更多分布规律一致。植物氮吸收速率及微生物脱氮速率之和与底泥氮释放速率基本相等,是造成滤床对溶解性氮去除能力不高的根本原因。通过氮、磷收支平衡分析,计算得出植物吸收、微生物反硝化脱氮以及截留沉积三种作用对氮去除的贡献在同一水平,而截留沉积是磷去除的最主要途径。首次采用水生植物滤床作为水源水预处理工艺,最佳水力负荷为2.5~3.0 m3/(m2·d)、水深为10~20cm。夏季对高锰酸盐指数(CODMn)和藻的去除率分别达20%和90%,冬季对CODMn和叶绿素a(Chl.a)的去除率分别为11%和85%。氨氮和浊度的全年去除率均分别达30%和90%。为城镇小型给水厂富营养化水源水预处理提供了一条可选途径。对水生植物滤床去除藻毒素(MC)的特性进行了系统研究。水力负荷为4.0 m3/(m2·d)时藻毒素去除效果较好,总藻毒素、MC-RR、MC-LR的平均去除率分别为59.4%、55.2%和66.0%。MC-RR在滤床中的衰减速度快于MC-LR。总藻毒素的去除与藻细胞总数、Chl.a、CODMn、TP的处理效果呈线性正相关。静态试验表明,植物的存在有利于MC-RR的去除,而光照有利于MC-LR的降解。对水生植物滤床的产品——水生蔬菜的食用安全性进行了研究,水生蔬菜体内重金属Cd、Cr、Cu、Hg、As以及农药六六六、DDT残留量均符合国家食品卫生标准,但发现Pb含量有时超标。结合现场试验和室内静态试验,提出植物套种和定期收割两种方式均可提高水生蔬菜的食用安全性,并在中试基地中成功应用植物套种与定期收割相结合的方式解决了水生蔬菜中Pb含量超标的问题。  还原水利论文+j!?K9x,S

v"es7Nj R,i S0【英文摘要】 Aquatic plant filter bed (APFB) is a new type of technique combining plant purification and physical filtration for constructed wetlands without any substrate that applied mainly to purification of hyper-eutrophic surface water.A pilot scale APFB established at the lakefront of Taihu Lake was tested to treat polluted river water.The following results were obtained:Ipomoea aquatica and Oenanthe javanica are identified as the most suitable edible aquatic vegetable species transplanted in APFB during summer/autumn and winter/spring separately.The characteristics of APFB for nitrogen and phosphorus were fully manifested. Under the optimal operation conditions with hydraulic loading rate(HLR) of 4.0 m3/(m2·d) and water surface level of 10cm, the removal loading rates of total nitrogen(TN)、total phosphorus(TP) are 1.539 g/(m2·d) and 0.232 g/(m2·d) respectively for all-year average, the removal efficiency are accordingly 17.3% and 24.1%. The removal efficiencies for TN and TP are better than ...更多dissolved nitrogen and dissolved phosphorus. The removal loading rate of nitrogen and phosphorus are also influenced by the frequency of harvesting, and the proper frequency of harvesting for Ipomoea aquatica is once a month. The APFB can output economic profit affirmatively when operation under the HLR between 3.0 to 4.0 m3/(m2·d).By the dynamics evaluation of nitrification and denitrification potential for sediment accumulating in the bottom of APFB, it is found that the maximum nitrification and denitrification potential appears in the middle part and front part of APFB separately. This distribution causes unfavorable effect on microorganism denitrification process. It is found that the distribution of nitrification potential accords with the ammonium-oxidizing bacteria density using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) to detecting ammonium-oxidizing bacteria and nitrite-oxidizing bacteria density in sediment The sum of nitrogen removal loading rate by denitrification and plant uptake is equal to the amount released by sediment, which is the reason of low removal efficiency for dissolved nitrogen. Analysis of the mass balances of nitrogen and phosphorus in the planted channel shows that uptake by plant, denitrification and block precipitation contribute nearly equal to each other for removal of TN. However, the block precipitation is the foremost removal mechanism of TP.APFB was used to pretreat eutrophicated source water for the first time. The optimal HLR is 2.53.0 m3/(m2·d) and the optimal water surface level is 1020cm when APFB used as source water pretreatment process. The CODMn and algae density removal efficiencies can reach 20% and 90% respectively in summer, while 11% and 85% (calculated as chlorophyll.a) in winter. The NH4+-N and turbidity removal rate can consistently reach 30% and 90% separately all year around. It can be concluded that APFB is a optional pretreatment process for suburb small waterworks.The characteristic of APFB for microcystin (MC) removal was investigated. The average removal efficiencies of total microcystin (TMC), MC-RR and MC-LR separately reach 59.4%, 55.2% and 66.0% under the proper HLR of 4.0 m3/(m2·d). The attenuation of MC-RR concentration in APFB is rapid than that of MC-LR. The removal efficiency of TMC is positive linear correlation with the removal efficiencies of total algae cells, chlorophyll.a (Chl.a), permanganate index (CODMn) and TP. Static experiments shows that the present of plant is benefit to MC-RR removal while sunlight avails of MC-LR removal.Food hygiene security of the aquatic vegetables cultivated in APFB was investigated. The content of some heavy metals including Cd、Cr、Cu、Hg、As and pesticide including BHC and DDT in vegetables esculent part were all kept to national food hygienic standard. But the content of Pb is sometimes over the limit value of national food hygienic standard. By field experiments and indoor static tests, the mode of plant arrangement and periodical harvestry to ensure food hygiene security for aquatic vegetables were put forward, further more validated in pilot scale experiment.  还原

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【中文关键词】 富营养化; 水生植物滤床; 水生蔬菜; 藻毒素; 水质改善
A#xaN5t5gcQ.q0【英文关键词】 eutrophication; aquatic plant filter bed; aquatic vegetable; Microcystin; water quality improvement

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TAG: 技术 水体 水质 水生植物 富营养化
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