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泥质海岸防护林土壤生态特性研究【作者】胡海波 【导师】姜志林

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泥质海岸防护林土壤生态特性研究

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【作者】胡海波导师姜志林水利论文&fYE8j {)R8@-~
【作者基本信息】南京林业大学,生态学,1999年,博士

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【中文摘要】 当今世界面临着环境与发展问题,资源危机日益突出,因而加快海洋开发、发展海洋经济已引起世界各国的普遍重视。我国淤质泥海岸面积辽阔、地势坦荡,急待开发利用,但开发过程中常遇到许多土壤问题,迫切需要进行深入、细致地研究。本文以东台市海堤、东台林场、射阳林场为试验地,另在沿海平原沙土区设置临时样地,对防护林地的潜水埋深、土壤含盐量、理化性质、生物活性、可蚀性等进行系统研究,并依据这些分析,选择代表性的理化指标,建立了苏北沿海平原沙土区土壤侵蚀量的预测方程。 潜水埋深受地形、降水和林分影响较大。越靠近河道、沟渠,潜水埋藏越深;降水与潜水埋深有密切关系,相关系数达0.9036;由于林内土壤疏松、林冠蒸腾,林分内潜水埋深大于林外,生长季尤为突出。 在水利改良和生物作用下,泥质海岸防护林表土已经脱盐,土壤中可溶性离子成分发生很大变化,Na+、Cl-含量下降,Ca2+、Mg2+含量上升,已不具有典型盐渍土的特性。土壤含盐量y(g/kg)与潜水矿化度x(g/L)密切相关(r=0.9940),方程为:y=-0.2868+0.2985x,且林分年龄越大其值越低。林地土壤含盐量的季节变化规律是,...更多春季土壤盐分自上而下逐渐升高,无返盐现象;雨季表土略高,10~80cm较低,而80cm以下土层含盐量急剧升高;秋季土壤含盐量呈下降趋势,0~60cm各层明显低于60cm以下土层含盐量。 春季土壤含水量较高,林地大于农田,且年龄越大含水量越高;6月份蒸腾、蒸发强烈,土壤含水量降至全年最低;随后降水增多,土壤含水量逐步上升,9月份达最高值;秋季降水骤减,含水量随之下降。林地表土含水量一般大于农田,但根系活动层土壤含水量低,且年龄越高影响深度越大。土壤含水量取决于气候条件和土壤结构等因素,经逐步回归得方程:y=48.6709+0.2061x4+0.1786x9-0.4451x10。式中,y-土壤含水量(%),x4-水稳性团粒含量(%),x9x10分别为含水量测定前半个月的降水量(mm)和蒸发量(mm)。 林分改土作用强,随年龄增大,容重减小、孔隙增多。在土壤孔隙中,林地非毛管孔隙较多,尤其是浅层土壤远较滩地大;自上而下毛管孔隙率变幅较小,但较草甸滨海盐土略高。研究区土壤质地比较均匀,粉沙粒(0.05~0.001mm)含量为72.1%~74.1%,在土壤中占绝对优势,沙粒(>0.05mm)含量仅占9.2%~10.5%,粘粒(<0.001mm)含量有自上而下逐渐增大的趋势。虽然滨海土壤比较均匀,但不同地段和层次也有一定差异。防护林能促进土壤形成团粒结构。且随着年龄增大,呈现出小粒水稳性团聚体减少、大粒水稳性团聚体增多的趋势。表层水稳性团聚体与土壤质地和有机质的相关性比较高,但第二层20~40cm其相关性较小,自第二层向下相关系数逐渐升高,说明深层土壤根系活动弱,土壤团聚体的形成主要受土壤母质特性的影响。  还原

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rt?bB){3R0【英文摘要】 At present the mankind is facing the conflicts between of environment protection and economic development. Resource shortage crisis becomes worse and worse. So it is very important to speed up ocean resource exploitation and to develop ocean economy all over the world. The silting coastal area of China is extensive and plain, which needs to be developed and utilized imperatively. However,there are a lot of soil problems to be solved systematically and deeply.The experimental plots were located in Dongtai sea-wall ,Dongtai forest farm and Sheyang forest farm. Besides there were some other temporal experimental plots in sandy coastal plain area of Jiangsu province. The author systematically investigated and studied the depth of ground water, salt contnet, physical and chemical property, biological activity and erodibility of soil etc. According to the results, some representive physical and chemical soil factors were selected to build up predictive equation of soil loss in the coastal pl...更多ain area of northern Jiangsu province.The depth of ground water was greatly influenced by topography, precipitation and forest type. The nearer the distance from river and ditch was, the deeper the ground water was. There existed close relationship between ground water depth and precipitation (the correlation coefficient 0. 9036). The ground water depth in forest land was deeper than that outside,because of loose soil and canopy trans- evaporation, especially in growing season.With drainage and biological improvement, the salt content in top soil of shelter-forest land in the silt coast area decreased, and the composition of dissoluble ions was also changed. The contents of Na+ and Cl- reduced,but those of Ca2+ and Mg2+ increased. It meant that the soil had no characteristics of typical salt one. There was close relationship between soil salinity (g/ kg) and mineralization degree of ground water (g/L) (r = 0. 9940). The regression equation could be described as: y= - 0. 2868 + 0. 2985x. The older stand had lower soil salinity. The seasonal variation of soil salinity in forest was as follow: From top to bottom of soil profile, soil salinity increased gradually. In spring the soil surface had no phenomenon of salt-return. In summer the salinity of the top soil was slightly higher, and it was lower in the 1080cm depth. But it increased abruptly below 80cm. In autumn soil salinity tended to decrease. The salt content in the soil of 060cm depth was much lower than that below 60cm.In spring soil water content was high. It was higher in forest than that in farmland. The older the stand age was,the higher the soil water content was. In June the water content in the soil decreased to the minimum due to intensive trans-evaporation. After that time soil water contnet increased gradually with increasing precipitation. In September, it reached the maximum. In autumn it reduced with the abrupt decrease of precipitation. The water contentof the top soiKO—10cm) in forest land was usually higher than that in the farmland. But it was lower within root distribution layer. Furthermore,the depth became larger with forest age increasing. The progressive regression equation of soil water content was: y = 48- 6709 + 0. 2061x4-t-0.1786x9 —0. 4451xl0(y—soil water content(%),x4—content of water-stable soil aggregate (%) ,x9,x]0 —precipitation (mm) and evaporation (mm) within 15 days before the measurement of soil water content).Forests can obviously improve soil property. With forest age increasing, soil bulk density reduced but porosity increased. There was more non-capillary porosity in forest land than that in beach land,especially in the top level of soil. Soil capillary porosity was slightly higher in forest land than that in coastal saline meadow soil. Soil texture was even in experimental area. The content of silt particles (0. 050. 001mm) was 72.1%74-1% ,and sandy particles (> 0. 05mm) only 9. 2%10. 5%. The content of clay particles (< 0. 001mm) increased from top to bottom of soil profile. Although the coastal soil was even, there was still some variance in different plots and levels. The shelter-forest can promote formation of soil aggregate. With forest growth,the quantity of small water-stable soil aggregate reduced,but large aggregate increased. The correlation coefficient between water-stable soil aggregate and texture and organic matter in the first level of soil(0—20cm) was higher than that in the second level. From the second level to the bottom, the correlation coefficient was becoming higher, which indicated that soil aggregate formation was mainly influenced by soil parent material because of less root in the deep soil.Except for K.the nutrient content in the top soil was highest. From top to bottom.it decreased gradually. The older stand had more intensive soil improvement capacity and higher soil nutrients. The content of available K in the top soil was much higher than that in the second layer. From the second layer to the bottom,the content gradually restored to the original value. Besides,pH value gradually reduced with salt loss. Among the physical and chemical soil properties, soil structure, non-capillary porosity, salinity, organic matter and pH value played an important roles.The activity of alkaline phosphatase in the soil was highest among the three kinds of phos-phatase. The average value was 0. 607 phenol mg/g, which took 62. 6% of total phosphatase. The correlation coefficient between alkaline phosphatase x (phenol mg/g) and total phosphatase y (phenol mg/g) was 0. 9731. The regression equation was:y= —0. 0476 + 1. 6743x. So alkaline phosphatase activity could be used to represent the total phosphatase.Enzyme activity of forest soil was higher than that of beach land. From top to bottom a-long soil profile,the activity of all kinds of enzymes reduced. Compared with farmland,the enzyme activity of forest top soil was higher,but other layers were higher or lower. In shelter-forest of silt coast,if the sampling depth of profile was 60cm, there needed at least three profiles for testing in order to meet the precision a = 0. 05. If the depth was 40cm,four profilesshould be sampled.There existed close relationship between soil enzyme activity and physical, chemical properties. The correlation coefficient of the first pair canonical variates was 0. 9443,which reached the level of great significance. In this paper the progressive regression equations of the four soil enzyme activity were also studied. There was close relationship between soil enzyme activity and micro-organism. Their correlation coefficient of the first pair canonical variates was as high as 1. 0000. Because soil enzyme activity had a close relationship with micro-organism and reflected biological activity,it could be used as the indicator to evaluate site productivity.Soil erodibility includs anti-scourability and anti-erodibility. Soil anti-erodibility of forest land was high. Mostly the soil water-stability index at the depth of 05cm and 5 20cm was about 1. 00. From the third layer to the bottom,the index reduced to some extent. The anti-scourability of soil surface in most forest lands was the highest, which was very important to prevent soil erosion. Whereas the anti-scourability of deep soil was less. Soil erodibility was obviously influenced by root system. The fine roots had greater influence. There was close relationship between erodibility and root with diameter of less than 1mm. Besides,soil anti-scourability had a closer relationship with root than erodibility. Artificial disturbance had a great influence on erodibility. Cultivation can improve soil erodibility. But mechanical silt-elimination had an adverse effect.Physical and chemical soil properties had great effects on erodibility. There was significant correlation between soil texture,structure,bulk density .organic matter etc. and erodibility. Physicial and chemical soil property had a close relationship with anti-erodibility than with anti-scourability.Generally, soil permeability rate changed very much even in the same stand and in different plots. The primary permeability rate of forest land was very high,which can absorb a lot of precipitation. Whereas the stable permeability rate might be less than that of bare land.Soil permeability process of forest land followed logarithm curve. The correlation coefficient reached significant level. But the permeability rate of both bare land and mechanical silt-eliminating land was not similar. Soil permeability rate was determined by content of organic matter and non-capillary porosity in the soil. Besides it was also affected by erodibility.According to the analysis on physical and chemical soil property,erodibility and permeability, eight factors related to soil loss were selected as explanatory variates,and soil erosion modulus as response variate. The equation was established as follows;y= 7758. 00—1986. O6x2 — 60. 51x7(y — soil erosion modulus (t/km2 * a),x2 —soil scourability (cm"*),x7 — content of physical clay particles (<0. 01mm)(%)).  还原水利论文!j w,G ^e

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【中文关键词】 沿海防护林; 含盐量; 土壤酶活性; 可蚀性; 渗透速率水利论文3M.h9~k3Uz
【英文关键词】 Coastal shelter-forest; Salinity; Soil enzyme activity; Erodibility; Permeability rate水利论文+I'_n#xzH?-a
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