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黄浦江上游水源林水文生态功能研究 【作者】刘道平 【导师】张金池

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(N"P'Im%P9b0黄浦江上游水源林水文生态功能研究

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【作者】刘道平 【导师】张金池水利论文#yLT3J!X3w7[[Z4h
【作者基本信息】南京林业大学,水土保持与荒漠化防治,2006年,博士水利论文(E3q:r'x-k

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bi&g)f&H[&b@,N0【中文摘要】 本文对黄浦江水源林的土壤渗透性、可蚀性、土壤水库容等水文生态功能、基于小波分析的水文模型构建进行了研究,结果表明: (1) 衡量安吉地区土壤抗蚀性的最佳3个指标是:>0.25mm水稳性团聚体、>0.5mm水稳性团聚体和水稳性指数。各样地土壤抗蚀性差异显著,从不同样地来看,落叶阔叶林、灌木林、毛竹林、国外松林的0-60cm土层土壤总体抗蚀能力强,茶园、常绿阔叶林、草地的抗蚀能力较强,而裸露地很差。从不同土层来看,表层土壤的抗蚀能力强,而底层较弱,这种规律在同一类型样地的土壤剖面方向上表现得更加明显。经DIDCRIM过程判别分析,得到安吉地区主要植被类型土壤抗蚀性强、较强、差3个等级的判别函数,模型平均误判概率仅为0.0704,具有较高的可信度。 (2) 除毛竹林外,各样地表层(0-10cm)土壤抗冲性最高,由上向下逐渐降低,这对保持水土、防止土壤侵蚀十分有利。各林地、草地土壤抗冲性差异并不显著,但都要显著高于裸露地。 (3) 各林地的渗透能力之间有差异,但都要强于裸露地。在同一样地土壤渗透性表现出随土层深度增加而减弱的趋势。对8种不同土地利用类型表层土壤的典型入渗过程进行拟合发现,考斯恰...更多可夫公式和菲利浦公式拟合理想,以考斯恰可夫公式拟合最佳,而霍顿公式、通用经验公式与实测点拟合较差。 (4) 各样地土壤各库容指标之间有明显差异。灌木林、落叶阔叶林具有较高的土壤总库容、兴利库容、滞洪库容、最大有效库容。裸露地死库容较高,而其它各库容指标显著低于林地,贮存水分的能力很差。一次充分降水后,土壤含水量随着时间逐渐减小,呈指数变化规律,且变化幅度因林地类型而异,松林、毛竹林土壤含水量变化比较剧烈。 (5) 根据表层土壤水土保持能力将8个样地分为4类。落阔林、灌木林为第一类,表现出极强的水土保持功能。茶园、草地、松林划为第二类,土壤水土保持功能较强;毛竹林、常阔林水土保持功能中等,划为第三类;裸露地水土保持性能很差,单独作为第四类。 (6) 土壤理化性质、根系,特别是≤1mm细根深刻的影响着土壤水土保持功能。根系对土壤水土保持功能的强化效应的实质是由于≤1mm细根对土壤理化性质的改善作用。 (7) 对降水量和径流深运用离散小波分析表明,降水和径流总体上趋势相类似,降水量存在7年的周期变化,径流深存在2年,7年,14年左右的周期变化。 (8) 涵养指数β能够反映流域森林涵养水源的能力。采用径流系数来作为流域产生径流能力的特征参量,能够消除降水量的影响,适合区域对比和时间变化的分析。建立森林水文模型Q(P,α)=P-(bα+c){1-ep/bα+c},能够更直接地反映  还原水利论文#c d*kC}

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【英文摘要】 Function on soil and water conservation of the main forest types in Huangpu River, hydrological model base on wavelet analysis It showed:(1) It was found that >0.25mm,>0.5mm water stable aggregates and water stable index can be regarded as the optimum 3 indexes to express soil anti-erodibility of the main forest types in Anji County by means of principal component analysis.There was much variance in soil anti-erodibility of different plots and levels.Soil anti-erodibility of Deciduous broad-leaved forest, Shrub community, Moso bamboo stand and Pinetum were high. Bare land was the poorest one. Soil anti-erodibility changed very much in different levels, especially in the same plot . From the soil surface to the bottom, Soil anti-erodibility reduced to some extend. With discriminant analysis, we could get 3 discriminant functions concerning good soil anti-erodibility, medium soil anti-erodibility and poor soil anti-erodibility in Anji County. The average mistaken probability was on...更多ly 0.0704. The model could be used to evaluate soil anti-erodibility in this area.(2) Except for Moso bamboo stand, soil anti-scourability of soil surface in all forest lands was the highest. And the soil anti-scourability of deep soil was less. Soil anti-scourability of forest lands was higher than that of bare land.(3) The difference of the main forest types about the soil infiltration was significant. The infiltration property of forest land was better than that of bare land. The infiltration rate of soil surface was higher, which was very important to prevent soil erosion. And the infiltration rate decreased with the increase of soil depth. Both Костякоь infiltration model and Philip infiltration model could better inflect the soil infiltration course of each vegetation types in research area. It showed that Костякоь formula analog effect was the best, and the Horton model and common experienced infiltration model were bad relatively.(4) There were great differences in soil reservoir capacity of all plots. The soil water total volumetric capacity, storage capacity, flood control capacity and the maximal available water capacity of deciduous broad-leaved forest and Shrub community were high, which was helpful to reduce surface runoff. The dead capacity of the bare land was the highest and its water-holding function was the poorest.(5) All the 8 plots could be clustered into 4 kinds based on function on soil and water conservation. The function on soil and water conservation of deciduous broad-leaved forest and Shrub community were the strongest, so these 2 plots were clustered into the first kind. The second kind was composed of Tea Garden, Pinetum and grass land. Whereas the fourth kind was made up of only the bare land, whose function on soil and water conservation was the most delicate one.(6) Physical and chemical soil properties and roots were the most effective in  还原水利论文u%r }1] Zh3ZY

%`5]E~+lj A5R&E/V7m0【中文关键词】 水文生态功能; 渗透性; 抗蚀性; 抗冲性; 土壤水库容; 小波分析; 水文模型
/{{`(z.j ot0【英文关键词】 eco-hydrological function ; soil infiltration ; anti-erodibility ; anti-scourability; soil reservoir capacity; wavelet analysis; hydrological model

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TAG: 上游 生态 水文 水源林 黄浦江
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