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南通市城市生态河道构建理论及其应用 【作者】高晓琴 【导师】张金池

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南通市城市生态河道构建理论及其应用

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【作者】高晓琴导师张金池
0w9y7o%GL*H0【作者基本信息】南京林业大学,水土保持与荒漠化防治,2008年,博士水利论文 U9l&K-i9B3u[

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4pucbQ'H7v"?0【中文摘要】 河流是水行进的场所,是多种生命起源和繁衍的地方,也是人类文明的摇篮。然而伴随着社会经济的发展,河道水资源过度开发,水污染日益严重。加之传统的水利工程过多地采用混凝土等硬质材料进行河岸边坡防护,使自然水体形态的渠道化、水池化和水岸的混凝土化,破坏了河流的生态系统,造成水质恶化,水生生物锐减。本文针对南通市地处平原河网区的特殊情况以及社会经济发展造成河道生态系统破坏等问题,开展了城市生态河道生态建设理论和应用方面的研究,主要取得了以下成果:(1)围绕构建生态河道理论与技术的总体目标,系统地提出了南通市城市生态河道构建理论。针对生态河道目前尚无统一界定的前提下,诠释了生态河道的内涵、组成、结构、功能。(2)雨量和径流月分配特征表明,降雨和径流年内分配不均匀,集中分布在夏季。雨量等值线的范围在1040-1070mm之间,高值线在南通闸—金沙—遥望港闸一线,且自高值线向南、西北方向逐渐递减,递减速率大致相同。平均径流深等值线,除南通市区、斗南区超过300mm外,其它分区径流深均在240.—300mm之间。采用Db4正交小波对南通市降水及径流深趋势进行分析表明,降雨量和径流深具有相类似的变化趋势。...更多(3)提出城市生态河道评价指标体系,包括河道水质评价、河道形态评价、河道景观评价和河道社会经济评价共25个指标,为城市生态河道修复和建设提供了一个统一的衡量标准。河道生态性评价涉及的指标既有定量指标,又有定性指标,对定性指标的模糊性较强,且指标层之间具有较强的层次性,选用层次分析法和模糊综合评价法相结合的评价方法予以评价。以濠河生态性综合评价为例,利用模糊模型计算各指标隶属于不同等级的隶属度值,确定模糊关系矩阵,从而计算出该河道总体生态状况指数。与总体生态状况等级标准相比,河道总体生态状况良好。由于该段的水体质量较差,影响了该段的总体生态状况,所以应重点进行改善河道水质,使濠河保持一个良好的生态环境。(4)运用构建的生态河道评价指标体系,选取南通市典型河道,利用模糊模型进行生态河道综合评价。濠河、焦港河、如海运河综合得分较高,即符合生态河道的标准;通启运河、通扬运河、海港引河综合得分较低,在生态河道建设中还需进一步加强;九圩港、通吕运河、任港介于两者之间。造成综合得分高低的主要影响指标是水体指标,因此在生态河道构建中要高度重视水质变化。(5)针对濠河在城市河道中的特殊地位,充分考虑水岸生态系统的延续性,提出自然原型、自然型、人工自然型等生态护岸技术。运用生态系统整体优化的观点对濠河周边绿地景观系统进行科学设计,建立适应性强、相对稳定的人工顶级群落。(6)通过贯通水系、引清调度等工程措施,运用“开放河流”的理念,摒弃了原有的以打坝建闸、截断水系为主要手段的“封闭”治水模式,创造性地挖掘、利用濠河的枢纽作用和辐射功能,来实现城市河道的畅引畅排,即通过优化调度、引潮换水、串活水系的方案及其相应的技术体系,建立了以濠河为中心的“长藤结瓜式”的平原城市生态河网系统,增强河道水体自净能力,从而提高河道生态功能。(7)通过对生态河道构建前后水生生物多样性和水质监测表明,濠河的北濠桥、跃南桥和三元桥三个断面底栖动物明显好转。近5年来南通市主要内河综合污染指数总体呈下降趋势,但部分河流不同年份波动较大,污染较为严重的内河主要为通启运河、拼茶运河和如泰运河等,如海河水质最好。濠河全水域及各断面水质有所好转,生态河道构建前期各断面劣于Ⅴ类标准,生态河道构建后期水质符合Ⅴ类、Ⅳ类标准。  还原

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_%l dG8g sr$@0【英文摘要】 The river where the water marches forward is the place for many kinds of life origin and multiplication, and is also the cradle of human culture. However, with the development of the social economy development, the river water resources had been utilized overly, and the water pollution was being serious day by day. Moreover, the traditional hydraulic engineering using the flinty material like concretes to protect the channel slope, had destroyed the rivers ecosystem, and leading to the water quality worsen and aquatic organism sharp declined. According to champaign river network of Nantong, urban ecological river construction theory and application was studied. The results showed:(1) Considering the total goal of ecological river construction, this article put forward ecological river construction theory of champaign river network area systematicly. At the reason of no unification definitation of ecological river, this article annotated the meaning, composition, configuration and funct...更多ion of ecological river.(2) Rainfall and runoff monthly distribution were asymmetry. They distributed on summer centralizely. The range of rainfall isoline is from 1040 mm to 1070mm with the distribution belt of high rainfall isoline from Nantong sluice and Jinsha to Yaowanggang sluice, and it's descending from the belt to its direction of the south and northwest with the similar descending rate. The isoline of average runoff depth is more than 300mm in the urban area and Dounan ditrict of Nantong, with the average runoff depth in other district of the studied area from 240mm to 300mm. Rainfall and runoff depth trend of Nantong were analysized by Db4 orthogonal wavelet. Rainfall and runoff depth had the similar change trend.(3) This article brought forward urban ecological river evaluating indicator system. It included water quality evaluation, riverway configuration evaluation, riverway landscape evaluation and riverway social economy evaluation. The number of evaluation index was 25. This evaluation system offered a uniform yardstick for the restoration and construction of urban ecological river. There were quantitative index and qualitative index for ecological river evaluation, and the methods of analytic hierarchy process and fuzzy comprehensive evaluation was used to evaluate the qualitative index which had high fuzziness and hierarchy in the indicator layer. Taking a case of study Hao river for example, the total ecological index of this river was calculated using this method, the results showed that the total ecological situation of this river was good comparing with the criteria of total ecological grading. The measures should be taken to improve the water quality and the ecosystem stability of this river.(4) The constructed indicator system for urban ecological river evaluating was applied to the case of typical river in Nantong by using fuzzy model. The rivers like Hao river, Jiaogang river and Ruhai river getting high score conformed to the criteria of ecological river, and some measures should been taken in the construction of ecological river to the rivers like Tongqi river, Tongyang river and Haigang river that got lower score. There were some rivers like Jiuweigang river, Tonglu river and Rengang river getting moderate score. The main influence factor to this results is water quality, so the change of water quality should be given more attention in the construction of ecological river.(5) In the case of important status of Hao river in urban river, considersing continuation of bank ecosystem, this article brought forward ecological shore protection thchnique of natural antetype, nature and artificial nature. Green areas of Hao River were designed take advantage of ecosystem integer optimization. Artifical uplevel community of adaptability and stability was established.(6) Water system transfixion and water replacement were applied to Nantong. The theory of "Open River" was applied to water control. Previous water control pattern based on construct dam and intercepte water system was spurned. This article utilizes hinge and radicalization of Hao River, realize mobilization of water. Ability of self purification of water body was improved, and then river ecological function was reinforced.(7) Hydrobiont diversity and water quality were measured before and after ecoglical river construction. The result showed that, bottom fauna of Beihao Bridge, Yuenan Bridge and Sanyuan ridge get better distinctly. Synthesis pollution index of main internal waters showed downtrend in this five years. The serious pollution of internal waters was Tongqi canal, Bingcha canal and Rutai canal. The best water quality was Ruhai River. Water quality of Hao River turned better, each cross section badder than V criterion at the beginning of ecological river construction, and accord with V and IV criterion after the ecological river construction.  还原水利论文7y mq4I ~&bu-U)Z

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【中文关键词】 生态河道; 小波分析; 河道贯通; 模糊评价; 生态护岸; 纳潮置换水利论文\/y9D&Z.Nwi"U
【英文关键词】 ecological river; wavelet analysis; river transfixion; ambiguity evaluation; cological shore protection; water replacement by tide

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TAG: 导师 河道 张金池 南通市 高晓琴
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