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副热带夏季涡旋气候动力学的初步研究 【作者】代刊 【导师】罗哲贤

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副热带夏季涡旋气候动力学的初步研究水利论文2L [p)gF^

i}0mJ L,_p h0【作者】代刊 【导师罗哲贤水利论文? @ NZ+|7X:m
【作者基本信息】南京信息工程大学,气象学,2007年,博士

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【中文摘要】 副热带涡旋具有多尺度和多种类的特点,其气候动力学研究也越来越受到科学工作者的关注。为对副热带涡旋气候动力学有较全面的了解,本论文从气候学特征、自组织现象观测诊断和自组织动力学三个方面进行了初步的研究。首先,引入改进的环绕角涡旋识别方法,从ECMWF40年再分析资料(ERA40)和NCEP/NCAR再分析资料(NRA)中提取了副热带西北太平洋,东北太平洋,西北大西洋和东北大西洋4个区域18年夏季的对流低层850hPa涡旋数据集。根据该涡旋数据集,我们分析了副热带涡旋的空间分布和时间变化特征。结果表明:(1)两种资料在四个区域都有很好的一致性,其中西北太平洋的相关性最好。(2)西北太平洋区域是全球副热带涡旋活动相对活跃的区域,区域内分布有两个涡旋活动中心,其涡旋平均强度强,涡旋活动范围广。(3)涡旋活动的活跃区都位于近海或海陆交界处,向远海方向或向内陆方向,涡旋活动明显减弱。(4)不同区域的涡旋活动具有不同的年际变化特征。(5)划分弱涡和强涡两种尺度讨论表明:副热带弱涡主要活动在陆地上或较低纬度地区,强涡则主要分布在近海;除西北太平洋外,其余3个区域的强涡数量都有增加趋势;西北太平洋和东北...更多太平洋的强涡平均强度有增强趋势;东北太平洋、东北大西洋和西北大西洋的弱涡平均强度有增强趋势。其次,进一步从ERA40再分析资料中提取了西北太平洋区域垂直12层的涡旋数据集,分析三维空间内的涡旋活动。分析发现具有明显的400hPa分界层。400hPa以下:各层涡旋活动的分布区域和年际变化与前述850hPa层相同;950~850hPa气压层内的涡旋活动最强烈;除中国南海外,其余地区随高度升高,涡旋的活动减弱;1000hPa上的涡旋个体强度有上升的趋势。在400hPa以上:250~200hPa层上的涡旋活动最为强烈;各层涡旋活动主要分布在15°~25°N纬度带内呈东西向带状分布,且太平洋中部的涡旋活动最活跃;300~150hPa层的涡旋个体平均强度有下降的趋势。再次,使用高分辨率的TBB资料分析台风“麦莎”形成时期的自组织过程。结果表明有多种尺度的涡旋相互作用。典型的有:γ中尺度涡旋之间,β中尺度涡旋之间,γ中尺度与β中尺度涡旋之间,以及β中尺度涡旋与热带气旋之间的相互作用和自组织过程。基于上述观测事实,本文采用Gerris自适应网格模式模拟不同位置、强度和结构的小尺度涡对双涡自组织过程的影响。结果表明:存在一个“Z”形敏感区,当小尺度涡出现在这一区域时,越有可能改变双涡自组织的终态;小尺度涡旋的强度和结构对该“Z”形敏感区范围的大小有重要影响;归纳小尺度涡能改变双涡自组织终态的4个必要条件是:初始位于敏感区内,有足够的强度,与双涡的距离适当,且生存时间足够长。最后,利用一个高分辨率的拟谱模式,进一步分析了双涡自组织,以及小尺度系统对双涡自组织影响的物理过程。结果表明,(1)双涡合并的物理机制是:在旋转参考系下,流函数场的异质双曲型固定流点进入涡旋内部,持续不断向外抛出涡量形成反气旋性螺旋臂;该螺旋臂构成的非轴对称涡度场,在双涡中心产生相向的气流,使得双涡逐步靠拢合并。(2)小尺度系统改变双涡相互作用的物理机制是:初始时段处于某一涡旋正影响区内的小尺度系统,构成非对称涡度场,进而在该涡旋内部产生指向另一个涡旋的气流;如果该气流足够强,则会使两个涡旋的中心距离在短时间内下降到合并临界距离之内,触发双涡合并过程发生,进而引起能量的逆级串。  还原

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,\L Gh2e;w%lo[`_0【英文摘要】 Subtropical vortices are multiscale and diverse. Recently, its climate dynamics isgiven more and more attentions. In order to understand the comprehensive climatedynamics of subtropical vortices, this thesis will make investigations on theclimatology of subtropical vortices, the observations and the dynamics of subtropicalvortex self-orgnization.First of all, using a modified vortex detection method which is based onstreamline geometry, the datasets of 1985-2002 summer subtropical vortices at850hPa level are extracted from the ECMWF 40 years re-analysis (ERA40) and theNCEP/NACR re-analysis (NRA) data in four regions, which are the western NorthPacific (NWP), the eastern North Pacific (NEP), the western North Atlantic (NWA)and the eastern North Atlantic (NEA). By utilizing this datasets, we analyzed thespatial and temporal characteristics of subtropical vortex activities. It is shown that: (1)the spatial distributions of ERA40 vortices are well consistent with those of NRAvortices in fo...更多ur regions, especially in the NWP. (2) The vortices spread over wideareas and have the largest mean intensity in the NWP, with two high active centersthere. (3) In all regions, vortices mainly cruise along the coast and in the adjacent seas,from where to the land or to the open sea, vortex activities are decreased gradually. (4)The annual variations of vortex activities are different in four regions. (5) Vortices aredivided into strong and weak types, and the investigations show that: most weakvortices occur in the land and low-latitude areas, while most strong vortices take placein the adjacent seas; except for the NWP, the number of strong vortices has increasingtrend in three other regions; the mean intensity of strong vortices in the NWP andNEP region has an increasing trend, so do the weak vortices in the NEP, NWA andNEA regions.Furthermore, using twelve layers of ERA40 data, the three dimensionaldistributions of vortices in the NWP are explored. The 400hPa level is found to be adivision interface. Blow 400hPa level: the spatial distribution and annual variations of vortex activities just like those at 850hPa level; the 950h~850hPa vortices are themost energetic; except the South China Sea, the rest areas have decreasing vortexactivities; the mean vortex intensity at 1000hPa level has an increasing trend. Abovethe 400 level: the 250h~200hPa vortices are the most vigorous; at all levels above400hPa, vortices mainly spread in the 15°~25°N belt, with the most active areas inthe central Pacific; from 300hPa to 150hPa, the mean vortex intensity has adecreasing trend.Secondly, the self-oganization processes of typhoon "Matsa" are investigatedthrough TBB datasets in genesis periods. The results show that there are multiscaleinteractions betweenγ-scale vortices, betweenβ-scale vortices, betweenγ-scale andβ-scale vortices, or betweenβ-scale vortices and tropical cyclones.Basing on the observations of self-organization and using the Gerris flow solver,which is an adaptive mesh model, the influences of a small system on theself-organization of binary vortices are simulated, through changing three parameters.The three parameters are the position, intensity and structure of the small sytem. Theresults show that: when the initial position of a small vortex is located in a "Z" shapesensitive region, the final state of binary interaction could be altered; the "Z" shapearea is close correlated with the intensity and structure of the small vortex; in order tochange the final state of binary interaction, the small vortex should satisfy fournecessary conditions, which are an initial position in the "Z" shape sensitive region,sufficient intensity, proper distance to binary vortices and a longer life.In the end, by utilizing a high resolution barotropic pseudo-spectral model, thephysical mechanisms are investigated. For the vortex merging, the whole processesare as follows: when the heteroclinic hyperbolic points of the streamfunction in theco-rotating frame enter the vortices, filaments will be expelled in clockwise direction;these filaments form an antisymmetric vorticity field, which produces airflows insidethe vortices that push the vortices into merge. For the influences of a small system onthe binary interaction, the physical process are as follows: when the small system islocated in the positive influencing area of one vortex in initial period, an antisymmetric vorticity field comes into being and inspires airflows whose directionspoint to the other vortex; If those airflows are sufficient strong, they will make thetwo vortices moving to each other and reaching into the merging critical distance in ashort time, which finally cause the coalescence of two vortices and the inverse energycascade.  还原水利论文-s2yq*HrU

;X/Q!M ^'sk0【中文关键词】 副热带涡旋; 气候动力学; 自组织; 触发机制
2Em;K*~izfSwv0【英文关键词】 Subtropical vortex; Climate dynamics; Self-organization; Trigger mechanism
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TAG: 导师 动力学 罗哲贤 涡旋 副热带
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