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长江流域全新世以来环境考古研究 【作者】张芸 【导师】朱诚

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【作者】张芸导师朱诚水利论文J'p6k#E1__guv
【作者基本信息】南京大学,第四纪地质学,2002年,博士

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【中文摘要】 全新世以来环境演变与人类文明的互动影响是现代人类文明、发展最重要的研究内容之一,探讨其相互规律和机制,不论对现在还是未来协调人地关系有重大的理论和现实意义。长江流域考古遗址地层中出现多期原因不明的文化断层现象,文化断层成因是目前全新世人地关系互动影响研究重要研究领域之一。考古遗址地层环境考古研究是揭示史前和历史时期环境演变与人类活动互动影响以及异常灾变事件成因和发生规律的行之有效方法之一。本文是在国家自然科学基金“长江三角洲全新世海侵和洪涝事件序列环境考古研究”项目、高校博士点基金“长江三角洲全新世海侵和洪涝灾害事件考古地层学研究”项目和国家文物局国家文物发掘基金“重庆市三峡工程淹没及迁建区考古发掘项目”资助下,在长江三峡地区选择3处新近发掘的考古遗址剖面(巫山张家湾遗址、巫山双堰塘遗址、巫山下沱遗址)、长江三角洲地区选择3处新近发掘的考古遗址剖面(无锡彭祖墩遗址、江阴祁头山遗址和海安青墩遗址),根据多环境指标,寻找遗址地层所反映的环境演变与人地关系信息,探讨古文化发展与环境演变的关系,研究文化断层的成因及空间分布规律,分析长江流域新石器时代和历史时期考古遗址时空分布规律,从地理学、考...更多古学、历史学等综合角度重点探讨了长江三峡和长江三角洲地区新石器时代以来人类文明的孕育发展与河流地貌演变、洪涝灾害及海岸线变迁之间的关系。根据一些遗址的14C年代以及器物排比法和钱币等确定的年代,长江三峡地区秦汉以前考古文化依次可以划分为6个文化期:(1)城背溪文化(8200a BP~6300a BP);(2)大溪文化(6300a BP~5000a BP);(3)屈家岭文化(5000a BP~4600a BP):(4)白庙遗存和魏家梁子文化(4600a BP~4000a BP);(5)西来的早期巴文化(4000a BP~3000a BP);(6)三峡地区的楚文化(3000a BP~278BC)。长江三角洲地区新石器以来至商周时期被划分为4个前后相继的考古学文化发展阶段,即马家浜文化(7000~6000a BP)—崧泽文化(6000~5000a BP)—良渚文化(5000~4000a BP)—马桥文化(3900-3300a BP)。根据大量的野外凋查和剖面沉积物采样后的粒度、孢粉、磁化率、有孔虫、含盐量、地球化学等分析以及长江流域众多考古遗址的地理位置、14C测年数据和考古学文化年代、地面高程、文化层的埋深和厚度、文化断层的埋深和厚度等资料的统计,对长江流域新石器时代和历史时期考古遗址分布规律、古环境演变过程与古人类古文化相互影响利异常洪涝灾害等方面研究得出以下结论:1.对长江三峡和长江三角洲地区众多考古遗址发掘资料进行统计分析,可以看出史前和历史时期考古遗址时空分布与多种因素有关,其中包括地貌位置、气候和生态环境、生产技术的发展、文化传统等方面。(1)野外调查、年代测定、河床砾石古流向分析以及考古发掘结果表明30ka BP以前,大宁河大昌段河床在现在双堰塘遗址范围内,以后逐渐向西摆动,直至今天的位置。河流地貌发育对大宁河两岸古文化分布有着重要影响,随着河床逐渐向西摆动,使得大宁河大昌地区古文化中心发生多次迁移。三峡地区史前和历史时期考古遗址多分布在三个宽谷地带,这里江岸平缓,谷地上土层堆积相对较厚,为先民提供了适宜的居住场所,可见地貌形态是影响考古遗址分布的重要因素之一。遗址分布格局的变化以及各时期遗址数量有锐减或明显增多的现象、遗址分布海拔高度有抬高或降低的趋势,这些都与一定的灾变事件有关。(2)根据长江三角洲地区28处马家浜文化遗址(凋查和发掘遗址总数目为74处)、38处崧泽文化遗址(调查和发掘遗址总数目为65处)和107处良渚文化遗址(调查和发掘遗址总数目为261处)发掘资料的统计以及新石器文化各时期考古遗址分布图可以发现长江三角洲海岸线变迁是本区文明迁移、扩散的主要原因。各时期考古遗址高程变化和文化断层厚度间接反映了与灾变事件之间的关系。2.长江三峡与长江三角洲的6个考古遗址剖面多种指标的测试结果以及长江流域其他遗址的考古发掘资料的综合分析表明环境演变长江流域文化兴衰有着重要的影响:适宜的气候使得古文化兴起和繁荣,气候突变事件造成文明中断和衰落。古文化兴衰与全新世异常事件之间存在着时间上的联系,而灾害事件是导致史前文化衰落的重要因素。3.对长江三峡和长江三角洲考古遗址进行地层对比,考古遗址文化层和文化断层沉积特征、文化层的叠压关系、考古遗址淤砂和淤土层厚度、46处埋藏古树和39处泥炭的14C年代统计数据和空间分布规律、文化遗址分布的时空变化规律等特征综合分析,发现长江三峡地区新石器时代到历史时期考古遗址地层中有7期文化断层:(1)城背溪文化末期到大溪文化初期(7200~6000a BP);(2)大溪文化关庙山类型三期(5800~5500a BP);(3)商周早期(4000~3500a BP);(4)商周晚期(2500~2200a BP);(5)宋代时期(960-1276AD):(6)明清时期(1368-1911AD);(7)近现代时期。长江三角洲地区7~2ka BP期间文化堆积共发生了7次间断,并沉积了自然淤土层或是有明显的文化缺环现象,它们分别是(1)马家浜文化中期(6500 a BP左右);(2)马家浜文化晚期(6000a BP);(3)崧泽文化中期(5500aBP);(4)崧泽文化晚期(5200~5000a BP);(5)良渚文化晚期(4200~4000a BP);(6)商周中期(3000a BP);(7)商周晚期(2500a BP)。这7期文化断层与史前和历史时期灾变事件的发生具有一定的联系性。今后长江流域环境考古研究还应加强高分辨率研究,采用先进技术手段提高测年的精度,尽量利用磁化率测试、孢粉、植硅石和有孔虫鉴定、地球化学分析等多项指标来研究考古遗址古环境,期望深层次发掘地层所蕴涵的信息,从而深入探讨环境演变与人类活动的关系。  还原

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+]bXf1O+MJ0【英文摘要】 The reciprocal influence between environment evolution and human civilization is one of the most important research contents since Holocene epoch. So, the research of the correlation and occurring mechanislns between environmental evolution and human civilization is academically and practically significant, not only to the present harmonious human-earth relationship but also to that of future. In addition, archaeological excavation over many years shows that there are many culture intemlptions among archaeological stratigraphy at many sites in the Yangtze River Basin. Therefore, the investigation of culture interruption is one of the most important fields of the interaction research on human-earth relationship in the Holocene. All in all, environment archaeology is one of the effective ways in revealing the interaction between environment evolution and human activities and the occurring principles of unusual extreme floods. Under the support of the National Natural Sciences Foundation ...更多item (environment archaeology of transgression and flood sequence of the Yangtze Delta in the Holocene), the University Doctoral Foundation item (archaeology stratigraphy of transgression and flood of the Yangtze Delta in the Holocene) and the Relic Excavation Fund item (excavation item of submersed region and migrate region in Chongqing city), the author selected three recent excavated sites (Zhangjiawan site, Shuangyantang site and Xiatuo site in Wushan county) located in the three Gorges and three recent excavated sites (Pengzudun site in Wuxi city, Qitoushan site in Jiangyin city and Qidun site in Haian county) located in the Yangtze Delta, sought after the infonnation of human-earth relationships and environment evolution from many environment indices, discussed the distribution laws and the causes of culture intem,ptions, analyzed the space-time distribution laws of archaeological sites and laid a strong emphasis on the relationship between the development of human civilization, river geomorphology, extreme flood and coastline evolution from comprehensive view of geography, archaeology and history.Based on some chronological data detemmmd by 14C technique and cultural relics, the schedule of archaeological culture before Qing and Han dynasty m the three Gorges region can be divided into six cultural periods: Chengbeixi Culture (8200~6300a BP)→Daxi Culture (6300~5000a BP)→Qujialing Culture (5000~4600a BP)→Baimiao and Weijialiangzi Culture (4600~4000a BP)→Earlier Ba Culture coming from the west part of the Yangtze River Basin (4000~3000a BP) and Chu Culture (3000a BP~278BC). The phase of archaeological culture in the Yangtze Delta from the Neolithic to Shang and Chou dynasty can also be divided into four periods. They are Majiabang Culture (7000~6000a BP)→Songze Culture (6000~5000a BP)→Liangzhu Culture (5000~4000a BP) and Maqiao Culture (3900~3300a BP).According to the field investigation, laboratory analyses of sedimentary from profiles (such as sediment granularity, geochemistry, sporopollen, foraminifera, magnetic and etc.) and statistical data of geographical sites, 14C dating and archaeological chronological data, the depth and thickness of cultural layers and culture interruptions, the conclusions about the distribution laws of archaeological sites, paleoenvironment evolution process, relationships between environmental evolution and human activities, and extreme flooding were obtained as follows:1.According to the analysis of substantive statistical data of site excavation in the Yangtze drainage area, it clearly showed that the space-time distribution is related to many factors, such as Geomorphology, climate, ecological environment, the development of productivity and technology, cultural tradition and so on.(1) The analysis of field investigation, chronological measurement, and ancient flow direction of riverbed gravel and the results of archaeological excavation showed that before 30 ka BP, the riverbed of Dachang segment of Daning River might be at the area of Shuangyantang site, and then might move westward to the current place. The development of rivers geomorphology greatly impacted on the distribution of ancient culture along the Daning River. The ancient cultural center in the Dachang zone of Daning river might transfer many times along with the riverbed movement to the west. Most of Prehistorical and historical sites in the region of the three Gorges distributed at three dale belts. At these dale belts, the banks of river were even and the thickness of soil was relative thick, which provided better inhabited location for ancient people. So it can be concluded obviously that geomorphology is one of the important factors that influence the distribution laws of sites. In addition, the change of distribution pattern of sites, site number and the height above sea level of sites related to certain disaster events, especially the extreme floodings.(2) It can be seen that the coastline displacement in the region of the Yangtze Delta is the main reason of migration and diffusion of human civilization from statistical data of archaeological excavation of 28 Majiabang cultural sites (the total number of sites is 74), 38 Songze cultural sites (the number of sites is 65) and 107 Liangzhu cultural sites (the nurnber of sites is 261) and the distribution map of Neolithic cultural sites. The change of altitude of sites and thickness of cultural interruptions indirectly reflected the relationships between the migration and flooding in this region.2.The general analysis of the excavation data from other sites and many laboratory data of six sites of the Yangtze delta and the three Gorges indicated that the favorable natural environment resulted in the rapid development and boom of ancient culture, and the deteriorative environment interrupted or impeded further development of prehistoric civilization. So environmental change remarkably affected the prehistoric civilization in the Yangtze River Basin.3.By the comparison between archaeological stratigraphy, sediment characteristics of cultural layers and cultural interruptions, 46 14C chronological data of buried paleotrees and peat, the synthetical analysis of the distribution laws of sites, and the reference to the results from other scholars, we can see that there are 7 cultural interruptions in the three Gorges and 7 cultural interruptions in the Yangtze Delta. They are from the last stage of Chengbeixi Culture to the initial stage of Daxi Culture (7200~6000a BP)→the third stage of Guanmiaoshan Culture Style of Daxi Culture (5800~5500a BP)→the initial stage of Shangzhou Culture (4000~3500a BP )→the last stage of Shangzhou Culture (2500~2200a BP)→During the Song dynasty Culture (960-1276AD) During the Ming and Qing Culture (1368-1911AD) in the prehistorical and historical period in the three Gorges。And they are the middle stage of the Majiabang Culture (6500 a BP)→the last stage of the Majiabang Culture (6000a BP)→the middle stage of the Songze Culture (5500a BP)→the last stage of the Songze Culture (5200~5000a BP)→the last stage of the Liangzhu Culture (4200~4003a BP)→the middle stage of the Shangzhou Culture (3000a BP) and the last stage of Shangzhou Culture (2500a BP) in the Yangzte Delta.In the future, high-resolution research on environmental archaeology in this region should be strengthened. If advanced technologies are adopted to improve the precision of chronological determination, the integrated study of environmental archaeology, geochemistry, phylithic and micropaleonotology and sedimentology could provide available evidence with environment evolution and human activities.  还原

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【中文关键词】 长江流域; 环境考古; 人类活动; 文化断层; 全新世水利论文CL:F,J4x6{
【英文关键词】 the Yangtze River basin; environmental archaeology; human activities; culture interruption; Holocene水利论文_0c;Ak%Sc9Knl$p l

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