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柴油发动机控制模型及控制算法的设计与仿真研究 【作者】杭勇 【导师】高宗英

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柴油发动机控制模型及控制算法的设计与仿真研究

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【作者】杭勇导师高宗英水利论文;f/m4WZ N@"| Z ~W
【作者基本信息】江苏大学,动力机械及工程,2002年,博士水利论文g0xG&] D;N

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!T;\bP+mU0【中文摘要】 随着当今社会对发动机排放要求的提高,在当前的柴油机研究中,对其实行电子控制已成为迫在眉睫的任务。电控柴油机具有可调参数多、调节准确,且调节的灵活性好、自由度大等特点,能使发动机在任何工况下均能工作在经济性、动力性和排放的最佳折衷点上,因此,柴油机的性能可得到最大的发挥。但电控系统的开发是一个庞大的系统工程,需要投入大量的人力、物力。特别对我国的相关研究工作来说,由于处于起步阶段,开发经验不足,将面对开发过程中实验量大、效率低、费用高等问题。基于计算机的数字仿真技术,利用先进的软件,建立“虚拟实验室”对发动机及其控制算法进行建模和数字仿真;利用高级语言编写、搭建和验证控制策略,并最终自动编译生成实用的控制代码。这些无疑会对我们认识和掌握发动机控制设计的一般方法、验证控制策略、优选控制参数、缩短开发周期和提高工作效率都起到非常重要的作用。 本文以MATLAB/SIMULINK软件为平台,开发出了柴油机速度控制策略的设计与仿真软件。作者首先在该软件平台上搭建起一个6110增压柴油机的准线性控制模型,为控制策略的设计与验证提供了一个良好的被控对象。然后对该模型进行了传统的PID控制效果的研究;...更多在分析了经典PID控制算法存在的问题的基础上,提出了将人的控制经验,通过模糊控制方法运用在传统PID控制算法上,建立了智能的模糊自整定PID控制器,实现了PID控制参数的在线自整定。仿真结果显示,发动机的控制效果得到了显著的提高,特别是在克服扰动(负荷变化)的仿真方面效果明显。 本文跟踪现代控制技术的发展方向,将具有自学习能力的智能控制方法,如单神经元自适应控制、神经网络控制应用在对柴油机的控制中。利用单神经元的自学习和自调整能力,将其与传统PD控制方法相结合,并进一步提出了单神经元自适应PSD控制方法,实现了控制参数的在线自适应调整。仿真结果显示出该方法具有良好的性能,为柴油机的控制提供了一个简单而易于实现的方法。 发动机控制器实际上就是一个多维的、复杂的传感器输入与控制量输出的非线性映射装置,因此,可以利用多层前向网络所具有的映射复杂非线性函数的性能,在大量数据的基础上建立起该映射关系。本文利用BP网络首先离线学习大量的仿真实验数据,初步建立起输入输出的函数关系;进而引入遗传算法进行网络的在线学习,最终建立起一个控制性能良好的神经网络控制器。 受控对象及控制器的快速原型开发在整个发动机电控系统开发中占有重要地位,这种实时的仿真原型可以实现硬件在环的设备测试和控制策略快速验证。本文中利用MATLAB中的Real-Time Workshop和xPC Target工具箱,实现了发动机及其控制器的实时仿真,为后面的硬件在环仿真提供了基础。 本文的研究是开发实用的柴油机控制器的前期工作,更重要的是提出和实践了一种较为先进的设计思路,可为后续的研究提供软件和理论的支持及方法论的指导,从而进一步认识和掌握发动机控制器的设计步骤,方便地进行控制器参数的优化,缩短其开发周期,也必然对柴油机电控技术的发展起到积极的作用。  还原水利论文DfsgB;g8@m#b

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【英文摘要】 Along with the even more strict requirements for the emissions of engines, how to realize the electronic controls of diesel engines has been the major task of the current research in this field. The electronic controlled diesel engine has such characteristics as more adjustable parameters, accuracy of regulation, great flexibility and freedom, etc. all of these can ensure the engine run at the best tradeoff point of economy, power and emission, consequently can make the engine get the best performances. But the developing process of the electronic control system is so complicate, need great financial and labor supports. Especially to our nation's situation, being in the process of the beginning, lacking of experiences, we surely will confront with the problems of huge lab tests, low developing efficiency and high costs. Using of the numerical simulation technology, with advanced software, to develop the so-called "Virtual Laboratory" and to model and simulate the engine and its control...更多 methods, then to compile the model and finally generate practical control code. These will obviously help us to understand and master the design steps of the control, to validate the control strategy, to optimize the control parameters and to shorten the developing period.Based on the software of MATLAB/SIMULINK, this thesis has developed a system to design and simulate the speed control strategies of diesel engine. First a quasi-linear model of 6110 turbocharged diesel engine was built, then traditional control theory such as PID were applied. By analyzing the problems that the traditional PID algorithm faced, the thought of combining fuzzy logic control with PID control was presented, thus can adopt the manual control experiences into the system. So an intelligent fuzzy self-tuning PID controller was developed, and the simulation results show the great improvement of the engine control performance, especially to overcome the disturbance (such as the change of load).Tracing the developing trends of the modern control technology, the intelligent control methods with self-learning ability, such as single neural cell control, neural network control, were also been applied on the control of diesel engine. Took advantage of the self-learning and self-adaptation abilities, the single neural cell control method was combined with the PID method, and furthermore the single neural PSD method was also brought out. Good performances were validated through simulation, thus provided an easy and feasible way for the control of diesel engine.The engine controller is in fact a multi-dimensional, complicated non-linear mapping device of the inputs and outputs. Therefore with the ability of mapping non-linear and complex functions, the multi-layer forward neural network can be used to establish these relationships based on the experimental data. This thesis first trained a BP net offline with great deal of experimental data, to establish the primary relationships of the inputs and outputs, then with the genetic algorithm the net was trained online, and eventually a neural network controller with quite good performances was built up.It's important to develop the Rapid Prototypes of the engine and the controller in the whole process; these real-time simulation prototypes can realize hardware-in-loop (HIL) test and strategy quick validation. In this paper, with the toolbox of Real-Time Workshop and xPC Target, the real-time simulation was made, thus support the HIL greatly.Research made in this thesis is the primary but important step in developing the actual controller, but the key point is the bringing forward and the experience on a new methodology, thus can support the future work with theory and software. By doing this, we can understand and master the design steps, preselect and optimize the controller's parameters, shorten the developing time, so will absolutely has great positive effects on the diesel engine electronic control engineering.  还原

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【中文关键词】 柴油机; 数字仿真; 控制算法; PID控制; 模糊控制; 神经网络控制; 遗传算法
XZ;x2hw~0【英文关键词】 Diesel Engine; Numerical Simulation; Control Strategy; PID Control; Fuzzy Control; Neural Network Control; Genetic Algorithm水利论文,j+KO0Chg?,@

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TAG: 导师 算法 杭勇 高宗英 柴油发动机
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