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离心泵多设计方案下内流PIV测试及其非定常全流场数值模拟 【作者】袁建平 【导师】…

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离心泵多设计方案下内流PIV测试及其非定常全流场数值模拟

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1IbCI%Cvt_0【作者】袁建平导师】袁寿其水利论文-DRbOo
【作者基本信息】江苏大学,流体机械及工程,2008年,博士

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【中文摘要】 本文系国家自然基金(编号:50649029)和高校博士点基金(编号:20050299006)资助项目。离心泵是应用最广泛的流体机械之一,其中低比转速离心泵一直存在效率不高,汽蚀性能较差,内部流动不稳定等问题。随着现代流场测试技术及CFD技术的发展,对离心泵开展PIV内部流动测试及动静耦合的非定常全流场数值模拟是当前国内外泵领域研究的重点和热点。本文通过对离心泵内部非定常流动现象和特点的分析,提出开展多种设计方案下的离心泵内部三维非定常全流场的数值模拟及PIV试验的对比研究,旨在较全面细致地了解不同设计方法设计的离心泵全流场流动的结构特点,捕获非定常流动特征,为离心泵优化设计提供理论基础,并实现离心泵性能的准确预测。本文主要研究工作和创造性成果有:1.在全面系统分析国内外离心泵内部流场实验和数值模拟研究进展的基础上,对离心泵内部流动现象进行了较全面深入的分析,并针对离心泵内部三维粘性湍流流动的计算模型和计算方法进行了讨论。2.采用先进的PIV技术,开展了离心泵内部流动的PIV测试研究。自行搭建了离心泵专用PIV试验台,针对离心泵叶轮结构特点,设计并制造了满足PIV测试要求的模型泵。首次对...更多采用不同设计方法所设计出的四种方案离心泵叶轮内部流场进行了多工况下PIV测试的对比研究,结果表明:采用低比速设计法设计的叶轮流道内相对速度基本沿叶片型线方向流动,叶片吸力面无尾流现象存在;采用常规设计方法设计的叶轮,流道进口处叶片对流体排挤严重,易形成气泡;采用较短短叶片设计的叶轮流道内流体由吸力面流向压力面,叶片进口处存在明显旋涡区,且随流量的增加旋涡区逐渐缩小;采用较长短叶片设计的叶轮内相对速度分布较紊乱,长叶片和短叶片吸力面处均存在明显旋涡区。3.首次对采用不同设计方法所得五种方案离心泵内部流场进行了单个叶轮、叶轮蜗壳动静耦合的定常流动和非定常流动的数值模拟对比研究。采用RANS雷诺时均方程进行数值求解,以RNG k-ε湍流模型来封闭雷诺应力项,应用SIMPLEC算法进行不可压缩流动压力场的求解,实现了对五种设计方案下叶轮内部流场的三维粘性湍流数值模拟。通过与PIV实验测试结果的对比分析,验证了所建数学模型的准确性。通过对设计流量工况及非设计流量工况下五种方案叶轮内部流动速度、压力、湍动能分布的对比分析,发现:低比速设计的叶轮流道内流体基本沿叶片型线方向流动,较大流速出现在叶片吸力面附近,叶轮出口吸力面侧无低速尾流区存在,与PIV测试结果一致;常规设计方法设计的叶轮,在叶片吸力面出口处存在低速尾流区,叶片压力面距头部1/3处出现一较大范围的低速旋涡区,使主流区的速度明显增大;长短叶片叶轮叶片进口压力面附近存在明显的低速旋涡区,流体从长叶片吸力面横向流向压力面,与PIV测试结果一致;由于短叶片的存在防止了尾流的产生和发展,长叶片吸力面出口未出现低速尾流区;当短叶片向长叶片吸力面偏置时,平衡了短叶片两侧流道内的流动,流动更为均匀。通过对五种叶轮设计方案的分析和评估,为最终进行离心泵叶轮优化水力设计提供理论基础。4.基于分块耦合及局部加密的方法生成三维非结构化网格,采用冻结转动部件法及多重参考坐标系模型,对离心泵包括蜗壳在内的全三维流场进行了定常数值模拟,结果表明:蜗壳进口速度和压力沿周向分布呈明显的周期性波动特征,叶轮出口射流和尾流区的存在与否及所处位置与泵的流量及叶轮结构形式有很大关系,进一步证实了离心泵内从叶轮到蜗壳整个流场的强非对称流动特征。通过不同设计方案及不同流量工况下的数值模拟对比分析,揭示了叶轮和蜗壳之间的动静干涉对流场的影响。通过对多个设计方案不同流量工况下的数值模拟,数值预测了离心泵的性能曲线,并与外特性实验曲线进行对比,进一步验证了本文数值模拟的准确性和性能预测的可行性,为离心泵的性能优化提供了途径。5.由于离心泵内的非定常流动能引起泵内部和出口的压力脉动,进而诱导产生噪声和振动,不同设计方案离心泵的非定常特性也不同。本文针对不同的设计方案,采用滑移网格的非定常CFD方法实现了整机全三维非定常流场的数值模拟,揭示了离心泵内部流动周期性波动特性和非稳定流动特征。蜗壳隔舌附近的压力波动幅值最大,蜗壳出口断面上的压力波动幅值最小;小流量工况下,各方案的瞬时扬程波动不大,随流量的增大瞬时扬程波动幅值明显增大;低比速设计的叶轮瞬时扬程波动较大,常规设计的叶轮瞬时扬程波动最小;采用长短叶片的叶轮,短叶片偏向吸力面时瞬时扬程波动最小。首次从非定常流动角度对不同设计方法所得叶轮进行了对比评估,并为进一步进行离心泵内部流动诱导噪声和诱导振动研究提供了基础。6.本文首次系统地进行了离心泵多设计方案的外特性实验、PIV测试和不同层次的数值模拟,研究结果表明:对于中低比速离心泵,不宜采用常规设计方法,最好采用低比速设计法或长短叶片设计法设计叶轮;若采用长短叶片设计法,应采用较短的短叶片,短叶片应向长叶片吸力面偏置的方案。  还原水利论文I:ti F3Re:|N

)Ay+e!Y r#y0【英文摘要】 The centrifugal pump is one of the most widely used fluid machinery. The low-specific-speed centrifugal pump exist three problems for lower efficiency, bad cavitation performance and unsteady flow. With the development of modern test technique and the CFD technology, the PIV measurement and the 3D unsteady turbulent flow simulation of a centrifugal pump considering of the impeller-volute interaction have attracted many researchers in the pump field recently. In this paper the unsteady flow phenomena and characteristics were analyzed, the PIV measurement and the numerical simulation of the 3D unsteady turbulent flow of the various centrifugal pumps were carried out. Through comparative studies, the flow field structures and the unsteady flow characteristics were obtained, which not only laid the theoretical basis for the optimization design of the low-specific-speed pump; but also help realize the accurate performance prediction. The main work and the achievements are as follows:(1) By ...更多critical review the trend of the inner flow measurement and numerical simulation for centrifugal pumps, the main flow phenomena in centrifugal pumps was thoroughly analyzed. The numerical simulation models and computational methods for 3D viscous turbulent flow in the centrifugal pump were discussed.(2) Using the advanced PIV measurement technology, the flow instantaneous velocity in the centrifugal pump was measured. According to the special requirements for the centrifugal pump PIV measurement, a PIV testing rig was established to measure the instantaneous velocity in the testing pump with four impellers by different design methods at different running conditions. The measurement results showed that: the fluid in the impeller designed by the low-specific-speed design methods flows along the blade and there is no wake zone at the suction side of the blade; for the impeller by the normal design method, the fluid is heavily squeezed at the impeller blades inlet and then the bubbles would be easier to appear; for the impeller with splitter blades, if the splitter blade is a bit shorter, the fluid would flow from the suction side of the blade to the pressure side of the blade and there exists obvious vortex zone which would be smaller with the increase of the flow rate. While if the splitter blade is longer, the fluid in the impeller passage flow irregularly and the vortex appeared at the suction side of both the long blade and the splitter blade. Thus, from the PIV results, the different design schemes were evaluated.(3) In order to comparatively study the flow characteristics in the centrifugal pump with different impellers by various design methods, the steady flow in the single impeller, the steady and unsteady flow in the impeller and volute considering the rotor-stator interaction were simulated, and the evaluation of the five impellers based on different design method was obtained.The Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes equations closed by the two-equation RNG k-εturbulence model were solved. The SIMPLEC pressure-correction technique on a non-staggered gird arrangement was employed. Then the numerical simulations of the 3D viscous turbulent flow in the five impellers based on different design schemes were carried out. This numerical simulation model was proved accurate for engineering through the comparisons between the simulation results and the measurement results. The distributions of the velocity, pressure and turbulent intensity of the flow in the five impellers at design and off-design conditions were showed and compared, which reveals the flow field structures of the centrifugal pump impeller. The fluid in the impeller designed by the low-specific-speed design method flows mainly along the blade, and the relative velocity near the suction side of the blades is larger. There is no low-speed wake zone at the outlet of the blade suction side, which agrees with the PIV results. While for the normal-designed impeller, there exists a wake zone at the outlet of the blade suction side, and there also appears a large-area low-speed vortex zone at the pressure side of the blades, which increase the relative velocity of the main flow. For the impeller with splitter blades, there exists an obvious vortex zone near the pressure side at the blade inlet section and fluid flows from the suction side to the pressure side of the blade, which also agrees with the PIV results. Because the existence of the splliter blade prevented the forming and developing of the wake, there is no wake zone near the suction side of the long blade outlet. When the splliter blade leaned to the suction side of the long blade, the fluid in impeller passages on both sides of the splliter blades are balanced and the flow is more even. These evaluations to the five design schemes are helpful for optimization design of the centrifugal pump impeller.(4) A CAD hydraulic design software for the pump volute was developed under the AutoCAD platform. The 3D steady turbulent flow simulation considering the impeller-volute interaction was finished. The 3D unstructured grid was generated by the multi-block and the local-refinement grid techniques. A frozen rotor method and the multi-reference coordinate model were used. The numerical simulation results showed that the inlet velocity and static pressure of the volute along the circumference obviously presents the periodic fluctuation characteristics, the appearance and its location of the jet-wake zone are related with the flowrate and impeller structure. All these results further verified the strong non-symmetrical pattern of the flow field from the impeller to volute. The numerical comparisons of the flow for the pump with five impellers operated at different conditions revealed the effects of the rotor-stator interaction on the flow field. The characteristics were obtained through these numerical simulations and compared with the corresponding testing results. Accordingly, the accuracy of our numerical models and the reliability of the performance prediction were further verified, and all these could be references for the performance optimization of the centrifugal pump.(5) 3D unsteady turbulent flow field was simulated for the centrifugal pump with the arbitrary sliding mesh technology. The periodic fluctuation phenomenon and the unsteady flow characteristics in the centrifugal pump caused by the interaction between impeller and volute tongue were investigated. The static pressure fluctuation in the volute and at the volute outlet and the instantaneous head rise changes were showed for the pumps with five different impellers operated at design and off-design conditions. The pressure fluctuation is strongest near the tongue and is slighter at the volute outlet section. The transient head fluctuation increases with the flow rate. The transient head fluctuation of the low-specific-speed designed impeller is the heaviest, while that of the normal-designed impeller is the smallest among five impellers. Among three splitter-blade impellers, the transient head fluctuation of the impeller with splitter blades leaned to the corresponding suction side of the long blades is the smallest. Eventually, the evaluation to the different design schemes was realized from the unsteady flow analysis. The study results can be further used to study the hydraulic noise and vibration induced by the unsteady flow in the centrifugal pump.(6) The performance test, the PIV measurement of the inner flow and various numerical simulations were systematically analyzed for the centrifugal pump. All these research results showed that the low-specific-speed design method and the splitter-blades design method will be better and more appropriate than the normal design method for the low-specific-speed centrifugal pumps. For the splitter-blades design method, if the splitter blades are appropriately leaned to the suction side of the long blades in peripheral direction, the flow performance of the centrifugal pump will be better.  还原水利论文oW*j4Mu$? {,P L:Ms

X8y9KV*];L6r0【中文关键词】 离心泵; 湍流; 非定常流动; 数值模拟; PIV测试水利论文(\H+^3D"h+qFb
【英文关键词】 centrifugal pump; turbulent flow; unsteady flow; numerical simulation; PIV measurement

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TAG: PIV 流场 设计方案 数值模拟 袁建平
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