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隙控式全射流喷头理论及试验研究 【作者】李红 【导师】罗惕乾

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隙控式全射流喷头理论及试验研究

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【作者】李红导师罗惕乾
u'i)E6Q;agM3r#@0【作者基本信息】江苏大学,流体机械及工程,2007年,博士水利论文w+R sC?0Le

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8^,|;Z }v+H0【中文摘要】 隙控式全射流喷头是国家863计划项目“新型喷滴灌系统关键设备的研制与产业化开发(项目号:201MAA224010)”主要研究内容之一。由于全射流喷头独特的“附壁”工作原理,使得喷头具有结构简单、水力性能优秀、多功能的特点,适应了喷头多功能及节能的发展趋势。因此,对全射流喷头进行射流附壁理论、性能试验及可靠性试验等方面的全面、深入、系统的研究,建立全射流喷头设计方法,具有重要的理论研究意义及实用推广价值。本文从自由紊动射流理论及附壁流动理论出发,计算分析射流元件内附壁点位置及射流核心区长度,指导喷头作用区系统的设计;研究运转控制理论,设计喷头运转控制系统,并对运转控制系统进行动力分析,推导获得最大驱动力矩的结构尺寸;总结影响喷头性能的主要尺寸,进行大量对比试验,并结合正交试验,分析各种水力性能要求下的最佳尺寸组合;采用CFD软件对射流元件在直射、正向附壁和反向附壁等运行状态下进行二维、三维数值模拟,并将模拟结果与理论分析、试验结果进行对比。通过以上对隙控式全射流喷头较为深入系统的研究,初步建立了喷头的设计方法。主要研究内容和研究成果有:(1)介绍了隙控式全射流喷头的工作原理及结构特点,...更多制定了1个系列6种规格喷头的设计参数。全射流喷头性能参数的制定高于国家《旋转式喷头》标准的要求。设计了喷头射流元件的稳流系统、水封系统、信号接收及输送系统、作用区系统,并研制了全射流喷头独特的反向机构。(2)分别使用附壁点模型与控制面模型,推导出附壁半径,以及对应各种位差时的附壁距离的计算过程和方法。首次编程对全射流喷头10PXH、30PXH射流元件的附壁半径、附壁距离进行了初步计算。并利用木村模型对核心区域的流动进行了分析。(3)研究全射流喷头运转控制理论,指出实现稳定切换状态关键尺寸的设计要求。设计喷头附壁控制运转系统,分别阐述具体运行参数,即信号接嘴位置、导水管长度、间隙C宽度等结构尺寸的设计原理。对喷头转动力矩进行分析,推导出全射流喷头的附壁驱动力及力矩、摩擦阻力及力距计算公式。首次利用附壁射流中心线方程及动量方程推导了理论状态下,附壁力矩最大值与结构尺寸之间的关系。并由刚体转动定律得出全射流喷头的力矩公式,及全射流喷头转角公式。(4)建立了基于RS485总线的分布式测试水量分布测试系统。试验研究工作压力、主要水力尺寸对水力性能的影响。进行了各种结构参数对喷头水力性能影响的正交试验。得到了射程、水量分布、频率、附壁力矩等最优情况下的最佳结构参数组合。(5)研制完成了测试全射流喷头工作稳定性的耐久性试验台和耐磨损试验台,进行了隙控式全射流喷头的耐久性试验研究和耐磨损试验研究。试验表明,隙控式全射流喷头耐久性能好,已安全运转2000小时以上,耐磨性能还需进一步深入研究。(6)采用三维非定常N-S方程作为控制方程,利用标准κ-ε紊流模型封闭雷诺时均方程,并利用VOF方法求解追踪自由表面的形状和位置,采用PISO算法耦合速度压力场,首次对喷头射流元件内部流动的不同运行状态进行了二维、三维数值模拟,初步揭示了内部流动的一般规律。为了验证数值模拟的准确性,对二维、三维数值模拟结果与试验结果及理论分析结果进行了比较。(7)在大量理论计算和试验研究的基础上,初步建立隙控式全射流喷头的设计方法,给出了作用区长度、位差,出口盖板左右位差的计算公式。  还原

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【英文摘要】 The research on fluidic sprinkler controlled by clearance was one of the main contents of China National High-tech Program (No. 2004AA2Z4010)"Development and Industrialization of key equipment in new irrigation system".The fluidic sprinkler was characteristic of simple structure, good hydraulic performances, and multi-function, which adapted to the trend of multi-function and energy-saving of sprinkler. So, establishing the design method of the fluidic sprinkler by complete, deep and systemic research on wall-attachment jet theory, performance experiment and reliability test, was of not only great significant for theoretical study, but also of practical value for wide application.Based on the theories of free turbulence jet and wall attachment jet, wall attachment point and core area length in the jet component were calculated and analyzed to guide the design of working area system of the sprinkler. Running control system of the sprinkler was designed based on the theory of running con...更多trol. A dynamic analysis of running control system was conducted to deduce the structure size, which can get maximum driving moment. The main geometrical parameters that influenced the hydraulic performance of the sprinkler were summarized, and a great deal contrast tests were tried out. The best-combined geometrical parameters for different hydraulic demands were analyzed by orthogonal experiments. Under different running state of the fluidic element, CFD software was applied to simulate the inner flow. The results of numerical simulation, theoretical analysis, and the experimental data were compared with each other. Based on the systematically study of mentioned above, design method of the fluidic sprinkler was established preliminarily for the first time.The main research contents and results were as follows:(1) The working principle and structural characteristics of fluidic sprinkler were introduced. Design parameters of one series including six types were established, with the higher target than the national standard "rotating sprinkler". Each system of the fluidic component, such as steady flow system, liquid seal system, signal incepting and transporting system, working area system had been designed. The unique reverse structure was also put forward.(2) The processes and methods of calculating wall-attachment radius, wall attachment distance varied with the offset ratio were derivated using Attachment Point Model and Control Volume Model respectively. The source program was written and applied to calculate the wall-attachment radius and the distance of fluidic component typed 10PXH and 30PXH preliminarily. The flow in the core area of fluidic component was analyzed by M. Kimura's model for the first time. (3) Based on the research of running-controlled theory of complete fluidic sprinkler, design request of key sizes was put forward to realize stable switch.Wall-attachment controlling and running system of the sprinkler was designed. The design principle of running parameters, such as the location of signal tube, the length of the pipe, the width of gap C, were set forth respectively. The driving moment of the sprinkler was analyzed, and the calculating equations of wall-attachment driving force and moment, friction force and moment were put forward for the first time.The theoretical relationship between the maximum wall-attachment moment and geometrical sizes was deduce using centerline equation of wall-attachment jet flow and momentum equation.Moment equation and angle equation of fluidic sprinkler were educed using rigid body rotating theory.(4) A auto-testing system of sprinkler rainfall distribution based on distributional RS485 bus was established in this paper. The influence to hydraulic performance caused by working pressure and major hydraulic sizes was studied by experiment.The best combination of geometrical sizes according to different performance requests, such as range, water distribution, frequency and wall-attachment moment et.al, was achieved by the orthogonal experiments.(5) Durable test-beds and fretting test-beds were developed to research the stability of fluidic sprinkler, and durable test and fretting test were done. The test result indicated that the lasting long performance of fluidic sprinkler was good because of the safety-running period of 2000 hours. Wearing characteristics will be lucubrated in the future.(6)3-Demesion transient N-S equation was used as control equation, k-εequation model was used to close Reynolds time-averaged equation. VOF method was used to track the shape and location of free face, and PISO method was used to couple the velocity field and pressure field. By the 2-D and 3-D numerical simulations of the flow in sprinkler component under different states, the preliminary flow law of the sprinkler was revealed for the first time. In order to testify the accuracy of numerical simulation, the results of theoretical analysis, experiments and numerical simulations were compared with each other.(7) Design method of the fluidic sprinkler was summarized based on the theoretical calculations and experimental studies. The calculating formulas of the length and offset ratio of working area, the left and right offset ratio of export cover were recommended.  还原水利论文vA$P {'b)Q

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【中文关键词】 隙控式全射流喷头; 射流元件; 附壁理论; 切换控制; 数值模拟; 正交试验水利论文kJq*as
【英文关键词】 fluidic sprinkler controlled by clearance; fluidic component; wall-attachment jet theory; switch control; numerical simulation; orthogonal experiment水利论文(q]]JH et9T

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