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低扬程大型泵站过渡过程特性研究 【作者】黄良勇 【导师】袁寿其; 严登丰

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【作者】黄良勇导师袁寿其; 严登丰水利论文L2M/Nz(pu
【作者基本信息】江苏大学,流体机械及工程,2006年,博士

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@'O C)GF/Q(u2zc#P0【中文摘要】 低扬程大型泵站主要用于提水排涝、灌溉工程及国家战略性调水工程中。21世纪,解决水资源问题是世界诸多国家头等重要的大事。就我国而言,一方面北方缺水是多年以来急切需要解决的突出问题;另一方面,南方特别是华东、中南各省(市)在雨季及时排涝也是关系到国民经济发展和人民生命财产安全的大事。如何使低扬程大型泵站安全、可靠地运行,掌握其起动和停机时的过渡过程特性是非常必要的。本文主要以带虹吸式出水流道的大型低扬程泵站为对象研究泵站的起动过渡过程特性。针对虹吸式出水流道分析机组起动开始到水流越过驼峰为止过渡过程的水动力特性。假设流道属刚性管系,不计水体压缩性,推导出了起动任意时刻泵扬程和力矩表达式。假设流道内气体未达虹吸驼峰顶处真空破坏阀排气压力前的起动过渡过程处于绝热压缩状态,运用能量方程结合动量方程和刚性水击理论,计算分析出了流道中的气体压力在起动过渡过程中的变化规律。运用前人提出的电动机起动过程中瞬态端电压的近似计算公式,首次提出起动过程计及电动机定子端电压变化影响的电磁力矩的近似实用表达式。在分析各力矩表达式的基础上,联合泵装置水动力特性和空气动力特性的表达式首次建立起表达泵系统起动动态特性数...更多学模型。针对数学模型的具体形式,寻求求解的具体数值方法,并进行编程求解,揭示出大型低扬程泵站起动过渡过程的特性。在大型低扬程泵站中,当水力装置水头较低,管道较短时,发生水击的相数很高,无需考虑系统弹性的影响。因此在基于能量特性的低扬程大型泵站停泵过渡过程特性研究中,利用刚性水锤理论分析了大型低扬程泵站停泵过渡过程中泵机组动力特性、泵装置水动力特性及流体动力学有压非恒定管流运动特性等,推导出了低扬程泵装置停泵过渡过程力矩平衡方程,分别建立了停泵动态过程(正转正流、正转逆流、逆转逆流)中泵及泵装置诸工作参数随时间变化的数学模型。为适应工程实际的需要,针对大型低扬程泵站过渡过程的具体特点,把一维管流刚性水击基本方程与水泵全特性曲线苏特变换方程结合起来,对事故停泵时泵处的边界条件方程进行改进,首次提出大型低扬程泵站停泵过渡过程简易计算方法的数学模型,揭示了大型低扬程泵站停泵过渡过程中各种重要参数诸如转速、流量、扬程、转矩等随时间变化关系。在推导过程中首次提出了利用苏特全特性曲线求停泵过渡过程中水泵流量-扬程曲线的方法,建立了停泵过渡过程简易计算的力矩平衡方程式,利用水泵全特性曲线的矩形域最小二乘曲面拟合的数学模型和停泵动态特性计算联合求解的方法。本文所提出的停泵过渡过程理论解决了以往对低扬程大型泵站停泵过渡过程无法求解的难点,对泵站的合理设计和安全可靠运行具有重要的理论意义和实用价值。论文还结合淮阴一站、淮阴二站、樊口泵站和花兰窖泵站具体工程资料对本文所提出的起动和停泵过程几种计算模型的正确性进行了验证。实例验证表明,本文所建数学模型是正确的,可供泵站工程研究、设计、运行应用。  还原

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n8Wy$L'q0【英文摘要】 The large-scale pumping station with low head is mainly applied in important water-lifting, drainge and irrigation engineering and water regulation of state stragitic importance. The water resource problem has been a most importance event in the 21st century. The north parts of China is very short of water, on another hand drainge in the rain season in southern area as Anhui, Jiangsu, Zhejiang, Hunan, Hubei province and Shanghai City becomes an important event regarding to state economical development and people's lifes. So it is necessary how to make the operation of large-scale pumping station with low head safe and reliable and understand its transient charactistics during start-up and shut-down process.This paper takes the large-scale pumping station of low head with siphon discharge as the objective for transient characteristics research during start-up process. The dynamic process during this transient period with regard to siphon discharge was researched. The flow passage was su...更多pposed to be rigid system, also the compressity of water wasn't considered, the expression of torque relate to head at any time during start-up was derived. It is assumed that it is adiabatic compression during start-up process before the atmophere pressure in flow passage rise to relief pressure, the thermodynamic equation, momentum equation and rigid water hammer theroy have been applied for the analysis and calculation the variation law of air during this transient process. Formula for approximate estimation of transient voltage during this process was obtained, also an useful expression for the electromagnetism moment was gained. At the end, expression for various torque calculation was analyzed, so the machematical model for the dynamic characteristics during pump start-up based on the hydro-dynamic characteristics of pump and gas-dynamic characteristics of air was constructed in this paper. A program solution for this problem was found in order to search the specific numerical method with regard to different kind of form of this mathematical model.In large-scale pumping station, the head is low and normally the flow passage is short, thus the phase number for water hammer is high and therefore the system compressiblity can be neglected. During the transient characteristics research based on performance characteristics of large-scal pumping station during shut-down process, the compressible water hammer theroy was not considered, a theretical analysis about the dynamic characteristics of pump unit, and pump system and the flow characteristics of unsteady pipe flow under pressure during shut-down process, and so on, were done. The mathematical model was also obtained for various condition, and the calculation solution for specific mathematical model was carried out. In order to simplify the calculation and meet the practical engineering need, aimed at the specific features of the transient process of low head large-scale pumping station, applying the basic equation of rigid water hammer for one dimensional pipe flow in conjuction with transformation equation of pump's full Suter characteristics curves, the boundary condition at pump when pump been suddenly shut down was adapted. Methamatical model for simple transient calculation during pump shut-down process for large-scale pumping station was put forwad for the first time in conjuction with the hydraulic characteristic of pump system. The main aim of this paper is to discover the relation between various important parameters such as speed, discharge, head, torque with regard to time. In the derivation, full Suter characteristics curves to detetmine the relationship between head and discharge was used, and the torque balance equation during pump shut-down process was built for the first time, and a method using mathematical model based on pump full characteristics curves coupling with the dynamic characteristics during pump shut-down process was applied for the first time. So the transient theroy during pump shut-down stated in this paper has solved the difficulty which is impossible to solve in the past for large-scale low head pumping station, therefore it has significant theoretical meaning and practical value for reasonable design, safe and reliable operation for pumping station.Furthermore, validation about several computation models for start-up and shut-down process established in this paper with regard to specific engineering references, such as Huiyin Pumping Station I, Huiyin Pumping Station II, Fankou Pumping Station and Hualanjiao Pumping Station was made. It was found that the mathematical models constructed in this paper is right and therefore could be applied in research, design and operation of pumping engineering.  还原

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【中文关键词】 泵站; 泵装置; 起动动态特性; 停泵动态特性; 过渡过程; 虹吸流道; 数学模型
]h"{R|j,Q0r{_0【英文关键词】 pumping station; pump system; start-up dynamic characteristics; shut-down dynamic characteristics; transient process; siphon flow passage; mathematical model

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