不同氮磷肥施用对春玉米农田N_2O排放的影响--《农业环境科学学报》2011年07期

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【摘要】:农田过量施肥会增加N2O排放,使农田土壤成为重要的温室气体排放源。为减少农田N2O排放,利用自动观测系统研究了春玉米农田中不同肥料对N2O排放的影响,并结合作物产量及N2O的排放量探索减少温室气体排放的施肥措施。采用田间试验方法设定了不施肥(CK)、尿素(U)、尿素加磷肥(NP)和硝酸磷肥(NOP)4个处理进行研究。结果表明,各处理下N2O排放总量分别为:CK0.21kgN·hm-2、U1.19kgN·hm-2、NP0.93kgN·hm-2、NOP0.69kgN·hm-2;N2O排放主要受施肥、灌溉,降雨和土壤温度的影响;在作物生长后期土壤含氮量小于7mgN·kg-1的情况下,观测到土壤吸收N2O的情况;各处理下排放因子均小于政府间气候变化委员会(IPCC)的缺省值1%,表明IPCC推荐的排放因子不适用于估算中国北方的春玉米农田N2O排放。施加磷肥有助于减少农田N2O排放并提高产量,硝态磷肥较尿素可以显著减少N2O排放。综合考虑产量和N2O排放,相对于施用尿素和尿素加磷肥处理,硝酸磷肥处理不仅可节约15%和30%的肥料投入,而且分别减少42%和26%的N2O排放,具有减排不减产的良好效果。

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%X}7Z P!tP"u0中国农业科学院农业环境与可持续发展研究所;农业部农业环境与气候变化重点开放实验室;Department

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【关键词】:

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9Fuc8} jzQ'K0春玉米 氮磷肥 NO排放水利论文;@W}TF!{IP2A

IL/e$i o:b0【基金】:国家“973”项目(2010CB833504)

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国家“十一五”科技支撑计划(2008BAD95B13)

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【分类号】:S513

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【正文快照】:

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Ot&X3U(j-Z0全球变暖已经成为不争的事实,农业温室气体排放占全球人为温室气体排放量的10%~12%,其中农业每年排放N2O占人为源的58%,并且正以较快的速率增长[1]。目前我国存在过量施肥且肥料利用率低的现象,2007年较1961年我国氮肥用量增加了58.5倍,是世界肥料用量第一大国[2]。我国因施水利论文6L6kw$~1x0O e0E

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