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三峡水库岸边水域水环境特性及承载能力研究 【作者】刘昭伟 【导师】陈永灿

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t+E9r%OPGu0三峡水库岸边水域水环境特性及承载能力研究水利论文:WQ Q(}(r1N\EH

"P J!{.c!jz!eC$G0【作者】刘昭伟导师陈永灿水利论文UG_Xnq.FS v
【作者基本信息】清华大学,水利工程,2005年,博士水利论文F"ZBA6Iw0K

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【中文摘要】 论文针对三峡库区岸边侧向排污的三维浓度分布特性以及“大水体、小排放”的难点,运用σ坐标变换和分层积分,并将流线迎风有限元、Edge-based有限元、面向对象有限元等方法有机结合,建立了σ坐标有限元分层模型。模型中嵌套网格和当地时间步长法的联合运用,解决了排污口模拟中数值传递不协调的问题,提高了模拟精度的同时加快了收敛速度。多种计算实例的结果表明,σ坐标分层模型能适应三峡水库具有自由水面、多变水下地形、复杂岸边界、岸边侧向排放等特点的水流水质模拟。论文首次定量研究了边坡倾角对天然河流岸边侧向排污的影响,得到了浓度计算的解析表达式,结果表明:①边坡倾角对污染物的浓度分布影响较大,浓度值随边坡倾角的增加而减小,近似遵循双曲线的递减规律。②给出了混合区计算模型选用的标准,即:边坡倾角大于30°时,排污口附近的浓度分布具有较强的三维特性,须选用三维数值模型进行计算。论文深入分析了三峡水库岸边水环境特性和水环境承载能力的变化。在确定了三峡库区允许混合区范围的基础上,计算了重庆主城区、涪陵区、万州区重要排污口在不同流量、不同水位、不同背景浓度等条件下的允许排污负荷;通过分析上下游排污口的相互影响,...更多得到了库区排污口适宜布局的最小间距;最后,对三峡库区岸边水环境承载能力进行了计算和分析,明确了三峡工程对岸边水环境承载能力的影响:①三峡水库蓄水前,库区岸边水环境承载能力的季节性变化明显,但地域变化不大。②水库蓄水后,岸边水环境承载能力大幅度降低,其减小幅度在地域分布上为万州区最大,重庆主城区最小;在季节分布为枯水期减小幅度最大,丰水期最小。③三峡工程改变了库区水环境承载能力的时空分布。蓄水后,库区岸边水环境承载能力的地域分布由大到小依次为重庆主城区、涪陵区、万州区;承载能力的季节性变化由大到小依次为丰水期、平水期、枯水期。论文成果为三峡水库混合区计算模型的选取、混合区范围的估算以及排污口的选址等水环境保护和水环境动态管理工作提供了有力的技术支撑。  还原水利论文-}:u rvQN3V

c7ZTN5f;KJF9z0【英文摘要】 In the present dissertation, the environmental characteristics and theenvironmental carrying capacity of the water body near riverside in Three GorgesReservoir (TGR) are studied by means of theoretical analysis and numericalsimulation. To simulate the three-dimensional distribution of the side-discharges intoTGR, a numerical model called σ-Coordinate Multi-layer Model is developed, inwhich the σ-coordinate and layer-integrated are used along the vertical dimension fordealing with both the free water surface and the bottom topography. The model alsointegrates several numerical schemes with regard to Finite Element (FE) such asstreamline upwind Petrov-Galerkin FE, Edge-based FE and Object-oriented FE,which makes the model more suitable for complicated topography. On the other hand,hierarchy mesh combined with local time-step scheme is used to simulate the mixingzone, which has the advantage such as shorter storage, less floating point operations,higher numerical precision, etc. The resul...更多ts demonstrate that the present model isrobust and reliable for the water quality simulation in TGR with free surface, variedtopography, complicated bank and side-discharges.The second part of the dissertation investigates the impact of the slope angle ofbank on the wastewater distribution of side-discharges into the natural river, and ananalytical formula is brought forward as a result. The results show that the slopeangle has great influence on the distribution of the concentration which will decreasewith the increase of the slope angle following the hyperbolic law. Another fruit is thatan obvious three-dimension concentration will distribute when the slope angleexceeds 30 degree, and the simulation is subject to the three-dimension modeling.A detailed analysis is also included of the environmental characteristics and theenvironmental carrying capacity (ECC) of the water body near riverside in TGR.With the determination of permitting mixing zones in TGR, the permitting massloadings of pollutant is calculated from the dominating outfalls in Chongqing, Fulingand Wanzhou under conditions of different flow rate, different water evaluation anddifferent background concentration respectively. The minimum distance betweenoutfalls is also determined based on the impacting zone of outfalls located atupstream and downstream. Finally, studies on the temporal and special distribution ofECC and the impact of the dam on the ECC are carried out with results as below.Firstly, under natural condition, the ECC in TGR changes from season to seasonapparently although it nearly keeps constant in different regions. Secondly, the damwill reduce the ECC a great deal. For the spatial distribution, the reduction inWanzhou is the biggest and the reduction in Chongqing is the smallest. For seasonaldistribution, the reduction in dry season and rain season are the biggest and thesmallest respectively. Thirdly, the dam will change the distribution of ECC nearriverside. The changed ECC in Chongqing, Fuling and Wanzhou are sorted from thelargest to the smallest for spatial distribution. For seasonal distribution, the ECC inrain season, general season and dry season are sorted in the descending order. Thework and conclusions in present dissertation will provide a reliable technical supportfor both environment protection and environment management such as the allocationof wastewater outfalls, the evaluation of pollutant mixing zones, the selection of thecomputing model, and it is necessary to strengthened dynamics managementmeasure  还原

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y*};XG4tP!r'e0【中文关键词】 三峡水库; 岸边; σ坐标分层模型; 水环境承载能力; 边坡倾角
"b;Q(f_UY a0【英文关键词】 Three Gorges Reservoir; Riverside; σ-Coordinate; Multi-layer; Model Water environmental carrying capacity; Slope angle
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TAG: 陈永灿 三峡水库 水域 水环境 刘昭伟
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