洞庭湖平原冲积性菜园土壤养分径流规律研究 Study on Nutrient Runoff Losses of Vegetable Soil Derived

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摘要:通过定位大田和田间小区试验,研究不同作物类型及不同施肥结构对菜园土壤养分径流损失的影响.结果表明,菜园土壤养分径流损失以氮为主,磷、钾索相对较少.从氮素形态看,以硝态N为主,铵态N较少.就淋失速度而言,硝态N最快,磷素次之,铵态N和钾素较慢且有一定的持续性.种植辣椒作物,由于施肥量大于南瓜,N、P养分的淋失显著高于南瓜地.当地菜农习惯施肥(CK2)和单施化肥处理(NPK),在辣椒生育前期,N、P养分的淋失较其他处理严重.施用有机肥料,特别是饼肥,作物生育后期水溶性总N和硝态N的淋失大于其他处理.不施肥处理,也存在着N、P养分的损失,且数量较大,在生产实践中应加强土壤养分资源的管理和高效利用.Abstract:Through the positioning field and field experiment to study the effects of different crops and different types of structure fertilizer on nutrients runoff loss of vegetable soil. The results showed that nitrogen was the main nutrient element in runoff, phosphorus and potassium was relatively small. From the nitrogen form view, NO_3~--N was mainly form in runoff and NH_4~+-N was less. On the leaching rate, NO_3~--N was the fastest, followed by phosphorus, NH_4~+-N and K~+ were slow and persistent. N, P nutrient leaching in the pepper land were significantly higher than the pumpkin land due to high fertilizer. In the early growth stage of pepper, N, P leaching were more serious in those treatments that used to fertilize (CK2) of local farmers and the appropriate application of chemical fertilizer (NPK) than other treatments. Application of organic fertilizers, especially the cake, the total water-soluble N and nitrate N leaching were more serious than other treatment in the latter growth stage of pepper. No fertilization treatment(CK1), N, P nutrient losses were also existed in experiment. So we should strengthen the management of soil nutrient resources and efficiently utilize them in the production.水利论文/?(LZYtO3X e ]

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d@-x!Wc0黄运湘 侯金权 汤宏 廖超林 颜雄 曾艳 张杨珠

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HUANG Yun-xiang HOU Jin-quan TANG Hong LIAO Chao-lin YAN Xiong ZENG Yan ZHANG Yang-zhu

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湖南农业大学资源环境学院,湖南长沙,410128水利论文{%t(}j9K^-v4Tl8B9Y

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洞庭湖平原 冲积 菜园 土壤养分资源 径流规律 Dongting Lake Vegetable Soil growth stage application chemical fertilizer treatment different 淋失 径流损失 处理 nutrient element field experiment soil nutrient nitrogen form leaching rate

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通过定位大田和田间小区试验,研究不同作物类型及不同施肥结构对菜园土壤养分径流损失的影响.结果表明,菜园土壤养分径流损失以氮为主,磷、钾索相对较少.从氮素形态看,以硝态N为主,铵态N较少.就淋失速度而言,硝态N最快,磷...水利论文1K"N)|HQQ Yc X

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