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黄河数字流域模型【作者】刘家宏 【导师】王光谦

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【作者】刘家宏导师王光谦水利论文7A8\b5j2c&E7Xr
【作者基本信息】清华大学,水利工程,2005年,博士

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X7~z8f#ooKh0【中文摘要】 数字流域模型能够模拟全流域的降雨-径流及产沙输沙等过程,在流域防汛减灾、水量调度、水土保持等方面有重要应用。目前该研究还处于起步阶段,研究区域的范围大多局限于小流域,离全流域的综合模型尚有一段距离。本文的研究目标就是建立全流域的数字流域模型系统。论文着眼于大流域的水沙过程模拟,提出并建立了数字流域模型系统的框架。模型框架依托DEM数据及其存取系统,以流域分级理论为依据,将全流域分为四级:坡面、小流域、区域和全流域。在坡面上建立产流和产沙数学模型,在小流域河网、区域河网和全流域河网上分三级进行汇流演进。通过“坡面产流,逐级汇流”的组织方式,将四个层次的模型整合成一个完整的数字流域模型系统。系统主要包括五项关键技术,即大流域DEM数据存取、流域沟道参数提取、基于遥感图像的模型参数提取、分布式降雨量数据存取和计算机集群并行计算。论文在数字流域模型系统框架下建立了基于坡面产流、产沙模块的降雨-径流模型和侵蚀产沙模型。模型在岔巴沟流域进行了率定和验证,效率系数达到75%。模型模拟了1983年黄河流域花园口以上部分的水资源分布状况和花园口等几个重要水文断面的径流过程,统计了黄河上中游各省的地表水资...更多源量。计算结果和实测结果基本吻合。模型用不同的时间步长再现了伊洛河“82.8”洪水(Δt=6min/1h)和1983年黄河小花间的汛期径流过程(Δt=1h),模拟结果和实测结果符合得较好。模型对黄河中游多沙粗沙区1967、1978、1983、1994、1997五年汛期的产流产沙量进行了模拟计算,结果表明多沙粗沙区进入黄河干流河道泥沙量和降雨量、降雨地点、降雨强度以及泥沙的粒径有关,模型可以较好地模拟这些因素的影响,解释黄河“多水少沙”或“少水多沙”现象。模型各项应用的结果表明:(1)模型系统能够适应不同需要,采用不同的计算步长;(2)模型可用于大流域的降雨-径流模拟和水资源量计算;(3)辅以降雨预报模块,模型可用于洪水预报;(4)模型可用于大区域或局部小流域的产流产沙计算,为淤地坝规划提供科学依据。  还原水利论文/}2vw8C*gQ

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【英文摘要】 The digital watershed model can simulate processes of rain-runoff, soil erosionand sediment transport in a large river basin. It is very useful for flood control, waterresources management and soil conservation. Up to date, previous efforts on digitalwatershed models have been focused on small river basins or catchments such thatthe developed models could not effectively simulate hydrological processes in a largeriver basin. The objective of the dissertation is to develop an integrated digitalwatershed model system which incorporates all hydrological processes into aframework.The digital watershed model has been developed based on Digital ElevationModel (DEM) data management system. The whole river basin is classified into fourlevels. At the first level routing processes in main channels are simulated for thewhole watershed;at the second level routing processes in minor streams arecalculated for the sub-basin area;at the third level hydrological processes aresimulated for the small sub...更多-catchment unit, which consists of surface runoffgeneration units and drainage trenches. At the fourth level surface rain-runoff and soilerosion models were developed for the hillslope unit. The models for these four levelsare integrated into a framework. Five key issues were explored for developing thedigital watershed modeling system, including DEM data management for a largewatershed, parameters extraction of stream networks, model-parameters extractionfrom emote sensing images, rainfall data acquisition, and parallel computation of theconcurrent computer group. The developed modeling system was verified with theobservation data from the Chabagou, a small sub-basin of the Yellow Rive. Theefficiency coefficient was 75%.The developed digital watershed model was applied for simulating the waterresources distribution of the region from the upper Yellow River to the Huayuankoustation. The errors between simulated and observed results were acceptable. Thedeveloped digital watershed model was also applied to compute the runoff andsediment production for the sandy and grit area in the flood season of year 1967, 1978,1983, 1994 and 1997. The result shows that the quantity, distribution and density ofthe rainfall as well as the size of the sediment are greatly affect the sediment load thatenters into the channel of the Yellow River. The simulated results can well explain thephenomenon of “high water and low sediment” or “low water and high sediment” inthe Yellow River. The application of the developed digital watershed model in theXiaolangdi to Huayuankou Reach of the Yellow River shows that the simulationtime-step of the model can be adjusted to meet with different computationrequirements: short time-step (6 min) for event-based streamflow simulation and longtime-step (1 hour) for continuous-precipitation-based streamflow simulation.Combined with the rainfall-predict module, the model can be used for floodprediction.In general, the developed digital watershed model in this study could be used forrain-runoff simulation and water resources estimation of a whole watershed with largescale. The simulation  还原

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XW1qx.u kCx_;]5?o0【中文关键词】 数字流域模型; 黄河; 径流模拟; 多沙粗沙区; 淤地坝规划水利论文4QXK$K\3NP2Nu
【英文关键词】 digital watershed model; the Yellow River; the sandy and grit area; rain-runoff; check-dams planning水利论文/CE\U%?%y
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TAG: 导师 黄河 王光谦 刘家宏 流域模型
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