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山区河流急流滩险航道整治技术研究【作者】曹民雄 【导师】张玮; 张幸农

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+P#xr,])n}*~0【作者】曹民雄导师张玮; 张幸农水利论文)vW gJ0@z
【作者基本信息】南京水利科学研究院,港口、海岸及近海工程,2005年,博士水利论文Q |` C&r?S

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【中文摘要】 急流滩险航道整治设计与建设中相关研究成果评述的基础上,指出了需要进一步研究的基本问题。采用概化水槽试验、遥控自航船模上滩试验、数学模型计算及理论分析等手段,研究了山区河流急流滩险整治的相关技术问题,研究的主要内容和结论有: (1) 分析了急流滩的形成条件,根据形成条件对滩段地形进行了概化,通过水槽试验研究了滩段流速、水位的变化规律,分析了影响滩情的主要因素和主要流态与碍航情况,并提出了滩段局部阻力系数的计算公式。较为全面地研究了急流滩水力特性的三维性质,论证了滩段水面形态、流速平面分布与滩段地形的相互关系。 (2) 通过概化水槽试验研究了船舶上滩的影响因素及动水特性,得到了船舶上滩航行对周围流场及比降的影响规律,为急流滩整治中常用的整治措施找到了理论根据。 (3) 通过遥控自航船模上滩试验,对常用的船舶阻力计算方法进行了对比与分析。对兹万科夫法进行修正,经修正后的方法能很好地反映出浅水和狭水道对船舶阻力的影响,并推广应用于水面倒比降滩段的阻力计算。提出了一种新的消滩水力指标确定方法,可以计算不同船型条件下的消滩水力指标,以满足根据航运发展而选定目前尚未航行于本河段的代表性船(队)情况。...更多 (4) 较为系统地归纳了急流滩险的整治原则与方法、以及山区河流滩险的滩性分析方法,对急流滩险的整治具有一定指导作用。 (5) 对弯道型汊道急流滩断面开挖的整治效果进行了计算,对凸岸和凹岸汊道的整治效果不同进行了理论分析。指出开挖面积、分流量与开挖处流速变化的相互关系。  还原

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v-jPj1[C0【英文摘要】 Based on the review of the literatures, problems related to the regulation of waterway with rapids in mountainous rivers were summarized and outlined. Research methods such as flume experiment, ship model test, mathematic model and theoretical analysis were used in the studies. It can be concluded from this research as follows:(1) The formation conditions of rapids were analyzed, and the variations of velocity and the water level were studied by the generalized flume test. Main factors, flow patterns and navigation-obstructing characteristics of rock rapids were discussed, and a formula to describe coefficient of local resistance was developed. The 3D hydraulic characteristics and the relationships between water surface, velocity distribution in plain and topography of the rapids reach were investigated for the first time.(2) Based on the flume test, the affecting factors and dynamic characteristics of ship sailing upstream were studied. The velocity distribution around the ship was me...更多asured, which is very important for further research work.(3) According to the experiment of ship model, calculation methods of ship resistance were compared. A new formula called аЭиванков modification method was developed, which may take account for the influence of shallow and narrow channel, and can be applied in the river reach with reverse slope. Based on the concept of stream power, a new method was suggested to estimate the hydraulic parameter of rapids abating.(4) The regulation principals and the river training methods of rapidswere summarized, which is very important for the rapids regulation.(5) A hydrodynamic model was used to simulate the flow in a bifurcated river reach, and the flow characteristics were analyzed. The result showed the different regulations effect of concave and convex branch.  还原

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【中文关键词】 山区河流; 急流滩险; 船舶阻力; 消滩水力指标; 水动力特性; 整治原则; 整治措施水利论文+s"F-Z/Bqb5f^9F
【英文关键词】 mountainous rivers; rapids; ship resistance; hydraulic parameter of rapids abating; hydraulic dynamic characteristics; regulation principal; regulation measure
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TAG: 航道整治 山区河流 张幸农 张玮 曹民雄
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