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丁坝的造床作用研究【作者】韩玉芳 【导师】陈志昌

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_CM0AHz0作者韩玉芳导师陈志昌水利论文#]?3Qs n
【作者基本信息】南京水利科学研究院,港口海岸及近海工程,2003年,博士水利论文Q gX#h@$CB

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'bY;j2E\(L*W0【中文摘要】 丁坝是一种广泛应用的建筑物,已有的研究成果多是从定床恒定流水槽试验中得到的。本文从实际工程中比较关心的问题出发,在已有的研究成果基础上,运用动床水槽试验和数值模拟的方法从以下几个方面对对丁坝的造床作用进行了深入的研究。 丁坝的回流尺度是反映丁坝造床作用的一项重要指标,具有重要的工程应用价值。应用控制体积法建立了二维水流数学模型,运用已有的试验数据和数值计算的结果分析了在丁坝回流尺度试验室结果和实际认识之间存在的差异的原因,进一步明确了实际工程中丁坝的作用强度,使试验结果更好地应用于工程实际。 通过丁坝的冲刷试验研究了丁坝对流场和河床调整的动态过程,分析了河床的调整对流场变化的反馈作用,以及这种动态变化对丁坝作用强度的影响。丁坝坝头的局部冲刷对丁坝的整治效果产生不利影响。丁坝局部冲刷试验中端坡坡度m=0~6。试验结果表明合适的端坡坡度和护底形式能有效的限制冲刷坑的发展。根据试验资料得出了丁坝端坡坡度和局部冲刷坑最大深度的经验关系式,并对实际工程中丁坝的合理端坡设计提出了建议。 潮汐河口的动力条件有其特殊性。通过往复流动床试验探讨了潮流条件下丁坝的作用特点,并对潮汐河口航道整治的规律性进行...更多了探讨,给出了潮汐河口航道治导线沿程放宽率公式。依据丁坝造床作用的一般原理对潮汐河口宽浅河床的丁坝群工程布置形式进行对比试验研究,提出了天然河床深水区和浅水区丁坝群布置的原则,深化和强调了丁坝造床作用的工程应用价值。最后结合丁坝造床作用的一般原理和工程实例讨论了丁坝作为整治工程建筑物应该注意的几个问题。  还原

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%l J9OD*co0【英文摘要】 Spur dikes are widely used for dredging waterway and protecting the banks. Most of the previous results are obtained from constant flow and fixed bed experiments in the flumes. By means of movable bed experiments and mathematical model computation, general researches on the scouring processes of riverbed around spur dikes are performed in this paper.The research on length and maximum width of re-circulation is very important for design of spur dikes. A two dimension numerical model is established for the simulation of the flow around spur dike by use of control volume method. Based on previous experimental results and numerical computation, some differences of re-circulation length between laboratory data and field data are discussed and the influence scopes of spur dikes are analyzed.By means of flume experiment, the scouring processes of riverbed are investigated, and the effects of bed variation are discussed emphatically. Local scour on the head of a spur dike is disadvantageous to...更多 the structures. Experiments are made to study the influence of head slope on local scour around a spur dike with different head slopes changing from 0 to 6. The test results indicate that a suitable head slope and an adjacent bed protection can prevent the development of the scour hole. A formula of relationship between the maximum depth of a scour hole and head slope is derived from experiment data. Some design principles about head slope and bed protection are suggested for practice engineering.Hydrological conditions in estuaries are very complex and unique. By means of flume experiments on alternating current, the characteristics of spur dikes in tidal current are discussed and the regulations of waterway renovation are investigated. A formula on the expanding ratio of regulated line in estuary is proposed. By use of tests on the alignment of spur dikes in natural broad-shallow river, the design principles of spur dikes both in the shallow water and deep water are proposed, and the engineering value of spur dikes is emphasized. For engineering purposes, several problems about spur dikes are pointed out according to the principles with some engineering examples.  还原

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【中文关键词】 丁坝; 回流长度; 冲刷; 动床试验; 端坡坡度; 往复流水利论文 LEC,R*|;vk1u)Ng
【英文关键词】 spur dike; re-circulation; scour; movable bed experiment; head slope; alternating current
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