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基于河流健康的水库调度方式研究【作者】史艳华 【导师】邹鹰; 丰华丽

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【作者】史艳华 【导师】邹鹰; 丰华丽水利论文xL4H']6\ Q? N{ _
【作者基本信息】南京水利科学研究院,水文学及水资源,2008年,硕士水利论文#z6K L&w^"jR6g


【中文摘要】 本研究得到国家自然科学基金《维持河流系统健康的生态流量及调控研究》(50509017)的资助!水库调度是关系到全流域、尤其是坝下区域生态的重大事件。生态调度必须从河流系统整体出发,充分考虑河流生态环境需水量要求,消除或缓解水库兴建对生态与环境带来的不利影响,从而有利于河流的生态安全和生物资源永续利用。首先详细分析了大坝水库调度对河流的水文自然功能、水质、河道形态、植物、大型无脊椎动物以及最高等的鱼类的影响,这些为水库生态调度提供了生态学理论根据。但是流量的改变仍是至关重要的,仍是支配性的因素。水库生态调度应保持天然节律的生态径流过程,以免对各种生物的正常演替造成干扰,而导致生物多样性的减少。提出了采用水文改变度这一指标评价水库对河流的改变程度。对水库的生态调度的目标、概念、原则进行剖析,并对生态调度进行了分类,对生态调度的基本思路进行了分析;提出了“适应性管理”方法,以加强河流生态健康管理,尽量使河流的各种生态灾害或风险降到最低。根据故县水利工程对中下游天然水文情势造成的干扰,提出故县水利工程的生态调度应采取的措施与方案。故县水利工程的生态调度要避免出现小于最小生态流量而干扰河流生态系...更多统的情况;在枯季采用尽量限制超过最大生态流的生态调度;汛前涨水期不能采用均匀放水原则,而要适时地进行“洪水脉冲”式放水,促进洛河鲤鱼的天然繁殖的生态调度措施;当流量大于390m3/s时采取自由泄流,水文改变度增加不大,也可以最大限度的不影响发电效益;在5月份动态实时约束的调度方式中,采取约束范围为±99m3/s,这样可以在尽量不影响发电效益的前提下缩小水文改变度,使水库下游尽量保持天然径流情势,保证生态环境不被破坏。最后经过比较得出结论:在生态要求不太高的河流可以选择最大约束,经济不会有损失。反之采用人造洪峰法、大流量自由泄流或5月份动态实时约束,经济损失较大但对保持接近自然的水文情势作用明显。  还原

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J r\;c jmm0【英文摘要】 This work was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China《research on ecological discharge for maintaining riverine ecosystem health and its regulation way》(No. 50509017 ).Reservoir operation is an important event related to the whole basin, in particular the regional ecology below the dams. Ecological regulation must be proceed from the river system as a whole, giving full consideration to the water requirement of the river's ecological environment, eliminating or easing the adverse effects to the ecology or the environment brought by reservoir constructions, which is conducive to the river's ecological security and sustainable use of biological resources.The article firstly makes close analysis of the influence on the river's natural hydrology functions, water quality, river morphology, plants, macro-invertebrates along with fish by reservoir operation, which provides ecological theoretical basis for ecological regulation of the reservoir. But the change of the rive...更多r's flow is still vital, and is still a dominant factor.The ecological reservoir operation should maintain the natural rhythm of the ecological flow process, so as to avoid various biological interfere with the normal succession, resulting in the reduction of biodiversity. The method of using "degree of hydrologic alteration" to evaluate the level of changes of the river by the reservoir is put forward.Objectives, concepts and principles as well as the basic idea of the reservoir's ecological regulation has been analyzed, classification of it has been made too. The "adaptive management" approach is put forward to enhance the healthy ecological management of rivers, minimizing the risk of ecological disasters to the rivers as far as possible.Based on the research of the interference to the natural hydrological situation of the middle and lower reaches of the Guxian Reservoir, measures and schemes which should be taken in ecological regulation of the Guxian Reservoir are put forward . Therefore, ecological regulation of the Guxian Reservoir should avoid appearing less than the lowest ecological runoff to seriously interfere river ecosystem; In dry season, ecological regulation should be limited not to exceed the biggest ecological runoff as much as possible; Before the flood season , reservoir must not let water out in uniformity, but make some timely flooding pulse to promote propagate of the Luo river carp. Free overflow should be taken when the flow reaches to more than 390 m3 / s in which situation "degree of hydrologic alteration" do not increase greatly, and the power generation will not be impacted to a large extent; In the way of scheduling in which real-time dynamic constraints areimplemented in May , the bound range of±99 m3 / s is suggested to take, this will reduce "degree of hydrologic alteration" under the premise of not affecting the power generation as much as possible, so that the natural flow situation will be kept in downstream and the ecological environment will be ensured not damaged.After the final comparison it is concluded that: for rivers that don't require too much of ecology can choose the highest ecological flow for constraint, there will be no economic loss. Instead, if the methods of Man-made flood peak, the free overflow or May real-time dynamic constraints are taken, there will be more economic losses while the effect of maintaining close to the natural hydrological rhythm will be significantly.  还原


e`PN }-f V0【中文关键词】 故县水库; 调度; 河流; 生态需水; 水文改变度水利论文0^*k&d*I5VL'`8L
【英文关键词】 Guxian Reservoir; operation; river; ecological runoff; degree of hydrologic alteration


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TAG: 河流 水库调度 丰华丽 史艳华 邹鹰
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