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超长单桩荷载传递机理及其桩筏基础共同作用研究(曾友金)

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【作者】曾友金 【导师】章为民; 王年香
f9Cl QY B0【作者基本信息】南京水利科学研究院,岩土工程,2002年,硕士水利论文&GfcJ8R2V{@ ]Ya R

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o2M)OH m0}MB0【中文摘要】 本文的研究内容包括:超长桩荷载传递机理、基桩有效桩长、桩筏基础共同作用及桩基离心模型试验的研究。 提出了用指数函数作为荷载传递函数分析超长单桩的荷载传递,对其参数如何取值进行了分析,并使其参数具有明确的意义。为了克服荷载传递法忽略土的连续性,对提出的指数函数进行了修正。合理地用优化方法对单桩静载试验成果进行反演分析,优选出桩周各土层和桩端土荷载传递函数的岩土参数。举出了几根超长单桩的工程实例,其计算结果与试验成果较符合,说明了该修正的指数函数作为荷载传递函数能合理分析超长单桩的荷载传递。 用描述桩侧摩阻力与桩-土相对位移关系的指数函数,来推导出桩-土接触面本构模型,并设置了Goodman接触面单元来分析桩土相互作用。针对超长桩钢筋砼受应力大的特点,用砼的弹性非线性模型来分析受轴向荷载下钢筋砼的应力应变关系。编制的有限元程序能解决层状土及层状土导致沿桩身不同位置处桩-土相互作用不同特性,并针对工程实例桩变截面的特点,采用合理计算手段使得按等截面桩计算分析所得结果,与按实际变截面桩计算分析所得结果相同。用此程序对一工程实例进行了计算分析,其计算结果与静载试验实测值较符合。 分析了桩的荷载传...更多递机理及桩侧极限摩阻力沿桩身的分布模式,并用荷载传递函数解析法定性分析了桩长、桩身轴向抗压刚度及桩侧极限摩阻力沿桩身的分布模式对深厚覆盖土层中普通桩极限承载力发挥的影响。 因有效桩长是随作用的桩顶荷载或桩顶沉降变化而变化的一个动态值,基于工程实际要求和从合理设计桩基的桩长出发,来定义基桩有效桩长,更具有理论和工程意义。对现有的基桩有效桩长定义进行比较分析后,提出了更合理的有效桩长定义。从工程实践、理论分析及超长桩静载试验成果来论证了普通单桩及群桩存在有效桩长。采用线弹塑性荷载传递函数,按极限承载力控制法和桩顶沉降控制法及割线刚度控制法来分析确定深厚覆盖土层中普通桩的有效桩长。对影响桩有效桩长的桩土刚度比、桩端土持力层弹性模量与桩周土弹性模量之比值、桩侧极限位移、土的泊松比、桩径、桩顶沉降量等因素参数取值及荷载传递函数参数确定进行了深入分析。从理论上较完整分析了各因素对普通桩有效桩长的影响,且分析结果与弹性理论法分析结果一致。为了把理论分析应用到工程实际中,对参数在工程桩中的取值进行了分析。 提出了一种考虑土-桩-筏共同作用的迭代分析方法,可获得筏板的内力和桩身轴力等。由于考虑了桩筏基础下群桩效应作用的群桩桩顶反力分布、群桩桩端力分布及桩与桩相互作用等问题,使得计算的群桩单桩刚度较合理。同时,具有能考虑土的非线性、成层地基、桩身砼应力应变非线弹性关系及利用单桩静载试验成果反演分析所得参数运用于群桩分析等特点。用八节点等参板单元可适用分析平面形状不规则及变厚度的薄筏板和厚筏板。用本文提出的方法对桩筏基础实例进行了分析,研究了桩长对该桩筏基础共同作用的影响,并与实测成果及其他学者研究成果进行了对比,表明了该方法能较合理分析桩筏基础共同作用。 在承载力较低的深厚软土地基上,进行了微型桩单桩和群桩离心模型试验。通过桩型、桩径及桩距等因素研究在长径比(50~100)很大时微型桩单桩和群桩的荷载与其沉降关系的影响,来分析其承载特性和沉降特性,具有理论和工程实际意义。  还原

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【英文摘要】 In the paper, the load-transfer mechanism of a super-long pile, effective length of foundation pile, the interactions of pile-raft foundation and the geotechnical centrifuge model experiment of pile foundation have studied.An exponential function is proposed as a load transfer function to analyze the load transfer mechanism of a super-long single pile. The parameters are studied how to reasonably determine. The exponential function is revised in order to overcome the demerit because the method of load transfer neglects the continuity of soil.Based on back analysis of results of a statically loading test of a single pile with optimization, geotechnical parameters of the load transfer function of layered soil around the pile and under the pile bottom are confirmed rationally. A good agreement between calculational results and testing results of several engineering cases proves that it is appropriate using the revised exponential function to analyze the performance of the super-long singl...更多e pile.The finite element method is carried out to analyze the load-transfer mechanism of a super-long pile. A constitutive model of interface is put forward and used as a means of studying pile-soil interaction with Goodman interface element. A elastically nonlinear constitutive model of concrete is employed to analyze stress-strain relationship of reinforced concrete under the axial load because of enough stress of reinforced concrete of the super-long pile. A compiled finite program can solve layered soils and different characters of pile-soil interaction along the pile body caused by layered soils. According to the character of variational section of a case pile, it is considered as uniform section of pile with reasonable computing method assuring compute precision in the finite element program. Calculational results of the engineering case agree to statically loading testing results of the pile.The load-transfer mechanism of the pile and distributed mode of laterally limited fricative resistance along the pile are analyzed. Pile length - distributed mode of laterally limited fricative resistance and axial stiffness of a pile are qualitatively studied how to influence the utilization of the ultimate bearing capacity of the pile with analytic solution of a load-transfer function in the deep overlay soil layers.It is very much useful for theory and engineering to define the effective length of foundation pile on the basis of the practical request of engineering and reasonable design of pile length because the effective length changes with the load or the settlement of top pileo The definition of effective length of foundation pile is given with comparing and analyzing the definitions by other researchers. Effective lengths of common single pile and pile group are proved from the engineer practice, theory analysis and results of a statically loading test of a single super-pile. By the different methods including the control methods of the ultimate bearing capacity, the settlement of top pile and secant rigidity, the effective length of the pile in deep overlay soil layers is analyzed and calculated with linear elastic-plastic load transfer function. The parameters of influencing effective length and the load-transfer function are thoroughly analyzed. In theory ?factors are perfectly studied how to affect effective length of the pile. Analytic results agree to analytic conclusion with the elastic theory method. In order to apply the suggested methods in practical project, it is studied how to confirm parameters in the project.The paper describes a iterative method to analyze soil-pile-raft interactions and the internal force of raft and axial force of pile and so on are obtained. Computational pile rigidity is relatively reasonable because the reverse force distribution on the top pile and bottom pile of pile group and the interactions between the piles are taken into account = Furthermore, the non-linearity of soiK the layered soils- the nonlinear elasticity of stress-strain relation of concrete pile, and parameter  还原水利论文u t3z``#V%A9f/j

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【中文关键词】 桩; 群桩; 桩筏基础; 离心模型; 试验; 有效桩长; 有限元; 本构律; 荷载传递; 共同作用; 沉降; 承载力
r cR r;j}0【英文关键词】 pile; pile group; pile-raft foundation; centrifuge model; experiment; effective length; finite element method; constitutive law; load transfer; interaction; settlement; load capacity
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