洞庭湖区防洪问题研究(黎昔春, 段文忠,余明辉,郑亚慧)

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洞庭湖区防洪问题研究水利论文qG+I3V0~A%S|

黎昔春1段文忠2余明辉2郑亚慧3水利论文#P1L$X#W'W6_7A_-J

(1.水利部湖南省水利水电勘测研究院;2.武汉大学水利电力学院;
b ~#P&G~@x03.长江委长江中游水文水资源勘测局)
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摘要:自解放以来,洞庭湖区围湖垦殖、泥沙淤积,湖区面积衰减1727km2。湖容萎缩126亿m3。湖区洪水位抬高1.0m以上。下荆江裁弯后,三口萎缩加速,江湖关系发生重大变化,长江城螺河段河床淤积,水位升高,洞庭湖出口泄流不畅,湖区洪水位进一步抬升,防洪形势严峻,洪灾损失严重。解决湖区防洪问题的关键是减少超额洪水来量及降低城陵矶河床高程及水位,扩大调洪湖容,近期难以实现。采取在退田还湖的同时挖湖筑堤造台,提高防洪标准,让老百姓安居乐业;堵支并流与疏通河道,扩大调洪能力;实施干支流水库联合调度防洪及预留必要的设施完备的分蓄洪区,乃是解决洞庭湖区防洪的当务之急。水利论文RCN,k3b.XN g

关键词:洪水位;防洪对策;洞庭湖;荆江

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基金项目国家自然科学基金及水利部资助项目(编号59890200)。水利论文:^ J.F.PJ bd6n

作者简介:黎昔春(1964-),男,湖南水利水电勘测研究院高级工程师。水利论文0f9Y6n[;t'`(S_,}

0 引言

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  洞庭湖区是湖南省的主要商品粮和淡水鱼基地,也是湖南省经济作物的集中产区,在湖南省国民经济中占有举足轻重的地位。发展和振兴洞庭湖区的经济无论是对湖南或是对全国都有重大的意义。然而它地处长江的南岸及四水的尾闾并与长江三口相通,是长江与四水超额洪水的滞蓄洪区。它的安危对湖南省有重大的影响。从而洞庭湖的防洪问题也极为重要并引起中央与地方有关单位的高度重视。本文仅就湖区的防洪形势及其对策加以探讨。

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1 洞庭湖区防洪形势严峻

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1.1 湖区主要水位站洪水位逐年抬升水利论文%Z/P^-LEp

  表1列出了湖区的主要水位站历年的洪水位值,可以看出:①同流量的水位,80年代初较50年代末普遍提高1.0m以上。②在流量并未增加太多的(甚至较小)情况下,90年代的洪水位又高于以往历年的洪水位。③50~60年代西洞庭湖区的洪水位抬升较东洞庭湖区的值要大;80年代后,东洞庭湖区洪水位抬升较快。

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1.2 超额洪水量大水利论文tG0MY#})r9G

  长江中游干流主要河段的防洪标准一般的只能防御10~20年一遇的洪水,荆江河段的安全泄量约60000m3/s,而城陵矶以下的螺山河段,在目前江湖现状情况下,遇大水年受下游支流来水的顶托,其泄洪能力不足60000m3/s,而近代的几个大水年,如1931,1935,1954,1998年,即使荆江分洪或溃口后,当城陵矶水位达到34.40m时,江湖汇合的洪水流量均超过100000m3/s,超额洪水流量达40000m3/s,若遇54年型洪水,当前需要处理超额洪水达500亿m3,按照长江中下游“蓄泄兼筹,以泄为主”的防洪方针及“江湖两利”和左右岸兼顾,上、中、下游协调的原则,洞庭湖区需安排分蓄洪水约160亿m3,而目前整个湖区的湖容仅167亿m3。在长江上游和洞庭湖水系各河洪水来源未能有效控制以前,洞庭湖区的防洪问题很难完全改变被动局面,只有依靠堤防及分蓄洪区来解决部分洪水。水利论文]3dwmfz

表1 洞庭湖洪水位变化表
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Table 1 Variation of flood level in Dongting Lake水利论文IR fk5CH.?


水系测站时间水位流量ΔZ水系测站时间水位流量ΔZ

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196036.584760
1954.7.137.400.93198237.8347601.25
197537.52164001983.7.839.38
1976.7.1338.371996.7.2139.72
1998.6.2739.181998.7.2440.446600
1999.7.137.651999.7.1839.154590

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1954.6.2937.81西水利论文Ao6t pa\At

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1954.7.3136.0514400
1955.8.2738.32195533.81123001.48
195835.956840198035.2912300
197937.0068601996.7.2137.6213800
1996.7.2139.481.051998.7.2537.2118700
1998.6.1438.411999.7.2236.837590\
1999.7.1738.20


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1954.7.3140.39

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1957.8.1033.4129870
196238.50199001973.6.2534.4029090
1969.7.1740.681980.8.634.8528970
198039.41199000.911991.7.1135.2428790
1996.7.1942.491996.7.2137.5718300
1998.7.2441.72
1999.6.3042.06

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1954.7.2838.14196032.13237431.80
196438.63106001.80197733.9323716
1983.7.840.43103001995.7.435.76
1998.7.2441.89140001996.7.2137.09
1999.6.3039.9682501998.7.3136.58
1999.7.2236.45

1954.8.334.5543400水利论文CKK2hL R
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1954.8.335.00
195731.52287002.191996.7.2135.73
1980.8.1733.71281001998.8.2036.13
1996.7.2235.3142100
1998.8.2035.9436800
1999.7.2335.6831700

2 洪水位抬高原因分析

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  洞庭湖区洪水位抬高是与湖区泥沙淤积,围湖垦殖造成的湖容减少及城陵矶水位抬升密切相关。水利论文;T4SY!j-N\

2.1 洞庭湖区泥沙淤积

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  洞庭湖区泥沙主要随荆江的松滋,太平,藕池和调弦四口及湘,资,沅,澧四水挟带而来。有关统计资料见表2。由表可以看出:

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表2 四口,四水来水来沙及洞庭湖淤积水利论文$C:HG"R&NVye2X
Table 2 The flow and sediment characteristics and sediment deposit of Dongting Lake

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入湖水量(108m3)出湖水量(108m3)入湖沙量(104t)出湖沙量(104t)淤积量(104t)沉积率(%)


四口四水区间合计四口四水区间合计

1956~196613631524224311131261992529173792322159611726074.3
1967~197210221729230298129821420740825301881952471357272.1
1973~19808341699255278827891107636664761521838391137974.8
1981~199578516482602693261594122386316121143035907974.9
1956~19959891636245287028451335530433971679543321246374.2
比重(%)34.557.08.510079.518.22.3100

  (1)由四水入湖的每年平均径流量为1636亿m3,占57.0%,而入湖的每年平均输沙量为3043万t,仅占18.2%;由四口入湖的每年平均径流量为989亿m3,占34.5%,而入湖的每年平均输沙量为13355万t,占79.5%,所以入湖沙量主要来自水流含沙量高的四口,而径流主要来自含沙量小的四水。水利论文wz"pKd5q\/Ju

  (2)下荆江裁弯前后比较,通过四口入湖的径流量1981~1995年间较1956~1966年间平均减少42.4%,入湖的沙量则减少52.7%,这是由于下荆江裁弯后上荆江水位降低所致。

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  (3)淤积在洞庭湖的泥沙量,裁弯前每年平均为17*!260万t,裁弯后的1981~1995年降为9079万t,1956~1995年多年平均为12463万t,占入湖沙量的74.2%,粗略而言,平均每年有1亿m3的泥沙淤积在洞庭湖内,即裁湾前平均每年淤湖泥沙约1.37亿m3,裁弯后为0.80亿m3

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  关于泥沙在湖区内的淤积分布,一般而言,是在来流的含沙量大于水流挟沙力的地区,既不是平均分布,也不全是深水区淤积最多,浅水区淤积少。根据一些文献的统计资料可以看出有以下的淤积过程及分布规律:水利论文5ael/J6X/Aum

  (1)由四口进入洞庭湖区的洪道,在前段(湖北境内)由于含沙量大,所以发生沿程淤积,多年淤积结果,断面比降逐渐调整,向平衡方向发展,近年来有冲有淤。在后段(湖南境内),则淤积量和厚度均较大。当然,各个洪道情况也有差别,例如虎渡河在相同时刻,由于南闸时开时关,且断面狭窄,则可发生冲刷。

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  (2)湖区的泥沙淤积分布规律是从西北向东南,然后再折向东北,由城陵矶出洞庭湖,淤积厚度逐渐减小。即七里湖,目平湖和南洞庭湖淤积多,东洞庭湖淤积少。

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  (3)四水入洞庭湖的尾闾区的淤积具有自己的特点,澧水的淤积多在七里湖,湘,资,沅水的泥沙分别进入东洞庭湖和南洞庭湖。由于洞庭湖的围垦和泥沙淤积,使湖容减少,水位抬高,这将使四水在洪水期由于水位抬高和回水上延,给防洪带来不利影响外,同时还将引起泥沙落淤地区沿四水向上转移,可能给航运带来新的问题。水利论文;}1o$tO^:g}

  (4)东南洞庭湖交汇处上下飘尾的淤积。由于四水和松滋、太平两口的来沙,使七里湖,目平湖以及南、东洞庭湖区逐渐淤积抬高,泥沙随水流由南洞庭进入东洞庭后,挟沙力降低,泥沙沉积,以河口三角洲形式向前推进,再加上由松滋口进入的藕池河泥沙,所以使这一区域泥沙淤积速度增快,形成上,下飘尾洲,并逐年向前推进,现已接近君山农场,给洞庭湖的防洪和航运均造成不利的影响。由以上分析可知,飘尾洲实质上是南、东洞庭湖来沙形成的淤积三角洲,是由四水和四口泥沙综合造成的。水利论文)c6wR7h;Y

2.2 围湖垦殖

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  众所周知,洞庭湖原为我国第一大淡水湖,1825年时面积曾达6000km2,号称800里洞庭,而至1949年时,衰减为4350km2,减少了27.5%,到1995年约为2623km2,为1825年的43.7%,沦为我国第二大湖,其具体变化资料见表3。水利论文}3O'b1Q*@\

  由表可以看出,1978年前湖泊容积的年衰减率远大于泥沙淤积1亿m3,湖泊面积年缩减率也远大于1896年以前自然状态,即无人工围垦的状态,说明人工围垦对湖泊缩小起了占优势的作用,泥沙淤积问题的作用相对较小。据有关文献记载,洞庭湖区围垸成堤或堤垸,从宋元朝就开始了,清朝逐渐发展,至宣统年间所垦垸田比比皆是。如南县因垸田面积增大,才于1895年建县。清时期华容、安乡、南县、汉寿、常德、湘阴共围垸550个,连同以前的计约1 094个,近600万亩;民国时期共有堤垸993个,垸田593.5万亩,解放后经过1952年及1954年的两次大规模的整治及并垸堵流,洞庭湖共有堤垸278个,耕地面积达868.7万亩。1955~1958年围湖建国营农场616km2,以后围堵零星湖泊和小块沙滩及矮围灭螺、控湖调度围控149km2。共围垦天然湖泊面积约1659km2。由于湖洲大量人工围垦,导致湖泊面积日益萎缩。据1977年卫星测图量算枯水湖面积仅为645km2,洞庭湖已成为一个冬陆夏水的季节性湖泊。80年代后,政府部门加强了管理,围垦湖洲的速度才得已降低,1978至1995年,湖泊面积仅减少68km2,湖容仅缩小7亿m3。应该指出,人工围垦和洲滩种植也是与泥沙淤积、湖床抬高密切有关,同时也促使洪水位抬高。水利论文8L*Dg*}ho

  由于泥沙淤积,也给湖区防洪排涝和四水尾闾航道带来不利影响。据资料统计,湖区通航里程在70年代仅为50年代的2/3,已大为缩短,特别是澧水航道、湘阴至城陵矶航道,继续发展下去有可能恶化,应加以注意。

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2.3 城陵矶水位抬高水利论文f5HR%] kl

  下荆江裁弯后,江湖关系发生了较大的变化,随着三口分流分沙的减少,城陵矶的输水输沙量减小,下荆江输水输沙量加大,造成城螺河段河床淤积及下荆江出流顶托洞庭湖出流,使城陵矶站的月平均水位及同流量水位抬高。见表4。裁弯后,尽管4~12月平均流量较裁弯前减少5.4%~23.4%(1~3月因四水来量大所致),但水位抬高0.29~1.21m;特别是6~8月,月平均流量减少1332~2927m3/s,水位反而抬高1.10~0.66m。对资料进一步分析,裁弯后,枯季的同流量水位较裁弯前抬高约1.20~1.50m,汛期同流量水位抬高约1.80m,这将大大减少了洞庭湖的调洪湖容,使整个洞庭湖区的洪水位抬升,东洞庭湖区洪水位抬升达1.0m以上。

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表3 洞庭湖水面面积及容积变化表
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Table 3 The change of water surface area and storage volume of Dongting Lake水利论文i1G L"Y2i;~,~T,A


年 份湖泊面积(km2/年)年缩减率(亿m3/年)湖泊容积(亿m3)年缩减率(亿m3/年)备注

公元前770~221年方园260里湖泊容积为相应岳阳水位33.5m(冻结)时的容积。公元前为复旦大学资料。
公元前589年方园500里
182560008.54
1896540019.45
1932470020.60
19494350872935
19543915193.526810
1958314124.72283.08
1971282018.41882.0
197826914.01740.41
19952623167

      

表4 城陵矶站月平均水位流量变化
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Table 4 Variation of monthly water level and discharge at Chenglingji station

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123456789101112年平均

1水位18.9818.9320.1522.4925.752682293728512785258323.2720.6924.09
流量213830975239940715225151821870915464139099890646034709904

2水位19.1319.1420.2423.1126.2226.9526.6728.0627.4526.5423.6520.7624.27
流量22022802467794381500014.1421984013905114209818614034959448

3水位19.5119.6120.2922.8526.7328.1330.0529.0028.4126.9423.7120.8024.69
流量215629634136846615.0661524317.6251324110.8348705501922598840

4水位20.6620.9222.1524.1625.6827.8030.4429.2628.7427.0624.1621.7325.29
流量26624071616791299952131071600612161109567915491329268349

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水位+1.68+1.99+2.00+1.67-0.07+0.98+1.07+0.75+0.89+1.23+0.89+1.04+1.20
流量+524+974+928-278-5273-2075-2703-3303-2953-1975-1547-544-1555

 备注:时段1、2、3、4分别表示为1956~1966、1967~1972、1973~1980、1981~1995;水位、流量单位分别:m、m3/s。

3 洞庭湖区的防洪对策

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 长期以来,不少专家学者对洞庭湖的治理提出了不少设想性的方案,如三口建闸,四水直接入长江,开辟自松滋河起沿长江干流东至江苏江阴附近的分洪道,治理洪道及加强分洪区的安全建设等,这些方案有些已实施,有些尚待研究。

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  洞庭湖区防洪形势严峻的主要原因是超额洪水量太大以及调洪湖容太小,特别是80年代以来城陵矶汛期水位抬高,导致洞庭湖区出口泄流不畅而加重湖区的洪灾。因此无论长江干流发大水,或是湖南四水发大水,都会在洞庭湖区出现持续的高洪水位,如1996年、1998年、1999年型洪水,洞庭湖区将会出现年年受灾,年年防洪。减轻洞庭湖区的洪水灾害关键是减少洪水来量及降低城陵矶河段水位与扩大调洪容量。水利论文ueL7S3L"py

  (1)尽快在四水及清江与长江上游干支流修建水库、扩大防洪库容并开展水土保持工作,是减少洪水与泥沙来源的最有效的措施。在洪水主要来源区之一的澧水上修建江垭,皂市水库,扩建沅水五强溪水库等,增加防洪库容,有助于解决四水尾闾及整个洞庭湖区防洪问题。  (2)降低城陵矶河段水位 其措施有二:一是实施长江簰洲湾裁弯;二是预计三峡水库运用10年后,荆江、城螺河段河床冲刷带来的水位降低(三峡水库调洪也有短期效果)。但是,在长江簰洲湾实施裁弯工程,将加重武汉市的防洪负担,其可能性如何尚待探讨;三峡工程的作用尚待20年后才能发挥。在近20年内,城陵矶水位难以降低。为此,近期解决洞庭湖的防洪途径需另找出路。

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  (3)扩湖清淤 贯彻“32”字方针,在严禁围垦湖洲,退田还湖,湖垸互换、轮流开垸滞洪放淤、拓宽洪道清除洪障的同时,结合航道整治,挖湖加高加固堤防与建造平原台地,扩大湖容并为人民提供安居乐业的场所。水利论文~W4FIv

  (4)根据“98”洪水及当前的江湖关系,进一步论证及修定洞庭湖区的防洪规划方案 由进入湖区的洪水来源,规划出分蓄不同洪水频率的分洪区及防洪大堤。提高干堤的防洪标准,并完善分蓄洪区的安全建设与管理。水利论文4Qp2|7^Q B

  (5)并支合流 80年代以来四口萎缩加剧,河道行洪断面过大,河网汇流复杂。因此,顺应河势变化,合理规划现行的河网,适当并支合流,能否让松滋、虎渡、藕池独流入南、东洞庭湖,避免松澧顶托、倒灌。这样一来,集中的水流提高了挟沙能力,减轻河床淤积;废弃了的河道可以开辟蓄洪区及放淤区,减少泥沙对湖泊的淤积,增加调洪湖容,减少防洪大堤的长度及防洪范围,减轻防洪负担。水利论文(OJ-H9w Zgwg Qy!`

  (6)增强湖区内排渍排涝能力 随着内湖的淤积和水位抬高,以前修建的机电排灌站,效率降低、设备老化,急需进行更新、改造。根据规划2000年洞庭湖区要达到十年一遇的排涝标准、需增加电排13.95Kw及相关的配套设施。水利论文 x_3Y1pV$rt`

4 结论

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  (1)洞庭湖区的洪水位逐年抬升。近20年来又抬升1.0m以上,防洪形势严峻。水利论文#V5dw f+F#n,D n][

  (2)围湖垦殖与泥沙淤积及城陵矶水位抬升,是洞庭湖调洪湖容减少的根本原因,也是造成湖区防洪形势严峻的关键所在。水利论文J)~6KaE;Ix6eAjc

  (3)解决洞庭湖区防洪问题的对策是减少超额洪水来源及扩大调洪湖容与建设设施完备的分蓄洪区。

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参 考 文 献水利论文k'r_~/Gt*l

[1] 徐乾清。荆江河段江湖关系的演变和洞庭湖区防洪问题的探讨。洞庭湖治理文集,湖南水利增刊,1988年。

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[2] 王明甫。洞庭湖的泥沙问题及其治理设想。泥沙研究,1991,(3).

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[3]段文忠。下荆江裁弯与城陵矶水位抬高的关系。泥沙研究,1993(1).水利论文J#b3mmkgh

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