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江汉平原四湖流域景观生态规划与流域生态管理研究 【作者】尹发能 【导师】蔡述明

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,uM].~-k.g#T0江汉平原四湖流域景观生态规划与流域生态管理研究
K#s3^;mM*bg%Q0Study of Landscape Ecological Planning and Drainage Basin Ecological Management in the Four-Lake Basin水利论文A m/\ e ldQ\^ _o

|v5^jZ6P0【作者】尹发能 【导师】蔡述明
$zDbV Y0【作者基本信息】华东师范大学,自然地理学,2008年,博士

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【中文摘要】 流域是指在一定地形界限范围内收集雨水或由一条河流、水系灌溉的区域,是一个从源头到河口的天然集水单元,是以水资源自然分布为主要特征的相对独立的区域。流域内各种自然资源和不同区域之间存在着密切联系,是相互制约和互相关联的统一体,流域的生态保护和建设工作必须有机结合起来,才能科学有效地解决流域的各种问题。流域生态管理以流域为单元,通过流域生态管理,可以最大限度地控制水土流失,维持土地资源的持续生产能力,提高流域各种资源管理水平,满足各种生态用水需要,防止或降低灾害损失,优化流域内产业结构,保持和加强流域内可再生资源的恢复与发展,促进流域内生物多样性尤其是现有珍稀濒危动物的保护和繁育,协调和改善流域内各种资源尤其是自然资源和人力资源的管理,促进生态的良性循环和社会经济的持续稳定发展。景观生态规划和景观生态建设是流域生态管理的基础、手段和重要内容。景观生态规划在景观生态分析、综合及评价的基础上,提出景观资源的优化利用方案。其基本任务是协调和改善景观内部结构和生态过程,正确处理资源开发与生态保护、发展经济生产与环境质量的关系,进而改善景观生态系统的功能,提高其抗干扰能力和稳定性,保护自然界的生态完...更多整。四湖流域即长江中游一级支流内荆河流域,位于江汉平原腹地。因流域内排水总干渠分别贯穿长湖、三湖、白鹭湖和洪湖而得名,东、南、西3面濒临长江,北接汉江及其支流东荆河,流域总面积11618.51km2,总人口500×104人。洪涝灾害、水污染和血吸虫病是四湖流域面临的最重要的生态环境问题。四湖流域生态环境问题与流域景观结构和空间格局关系密切。因为水是流域的核心要素和联系纽带,水文联系和水循环的破坏必然导致流域生态系统结构的失衡和功能的衰退,四湖流域生态环境问题的实质和根源正在于此。采用遥感和GIS技术对四湖流域景观结构进行空间分析,结果表明,四湖各景观类型所占比例差异较大,湿地景观分布不太均匀。各景观类型的破碎度较低,整个研究区是以少数大斑块为主体构建起来的。进一步采用分形模型对四湖流域景观要素镶嵌结构的复杂性和稳定性进行分析,证明各种景观要素类型的稳定性和复杂性存在明显差异。其中,复杂程度排序为:人工水面>天然水面>城镇>旱地>水田,人工水面分维值最高,其镶嵌结构最复杂。稳定程度排序为:水田>旱地>城镇>天然水面>人工水面,稳定性排序与复杂性排序正好相反,越复杂的景观越是不稳定的景观。四湖流域各种景观要素的复杂性和稳定性分析为流域景观生态规划和流域生态管理提供了依据。四湖流域的景观生态规划主要运用了马尔科夫模型和累计最小阻力模型两种方法。利用马氏过程模型,得到四湖流域景观结构变化趋势:天然水面、水田和非湿地(主要是旱地)减少,人工水面和城镇占地明显增加。以马氏模型计算出来的转移概率为基础,计算得到累计最小阻力模型所需要的各景观要素阻力值,并在地理信息系统软件中分别计算得到四湖流域湖泊、人工水面和城镇的阻力面形态图和景观安全格局,从而对湖泊、人工水面、水田、旱地和城镇等景观要素的面积和具体分布做出相应规划。具体方案分两种情况,一种情况与马尔科夫模型对未来四湖流域景观结构的预测结果基本一致,因为湖泊面积与现状基本接近,我们称之为不还湖方案。另一种情况考虑退田还湖等措施的实施,湖泊面积将显著扩大,相应的水田等景观类型的比例降低。四湖流域景观生态建设和流域生态管理的主要措施包括:退田还湖恢复湿地,扩大湖泊湿地面积;湖泊河流生态修复与生态建设,江湖连通与引江济湖工程;生态灭螺与综合防治血吸虫病;保护四湖流域湿地生物多样性;加强分蓄洪区建设;建立四湖流域专门管理机构,统筹全流域建设与管理等多个方面的工作。  还原水利论文!T7wUO_7bq)}

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【英文摘要】 A drainage basin is a certain area where rain flow gathers, or is a drainage basin irrigated by a river. It is a natural catchments unit and has specifically boundary from the source to estuary, and its main feature is the natural distribution of water resources. In a basin, as a entia, close interaction and mutual restriction exists between various natural resources and different regions, and so, only with the integration of ecological protection and construction, can we solve all kinds of problems in a basin. Through the valley ecosystem management, which regards the valley as a unit, we can reduce the soil and water loss can decrease, maintain the sustained productivity of land resources, improve the management level of variety resources in a basin, suffice the needs of ecological water, prevent or reduce the disaster loss, optimize the industrial structure, keep and reinforce the recovery and development of the renewable resources in a valley, promote biological diversity, especial...更多ly protect and raise rare or endangered species ,coordinate and improve the management of all kinds of resources especially the natural resources and human resources, promote good cycle of ecological and the sustainable and stable development of socio-economic.The landscape ecological planning and landscape ecological construction are the base, means and important part of the valley ecosystem management. The landscape ecological planning makes the optimal program of the landscape resources use on the basis of the landscape ecology analysis, synthesis and evaluation. Its basic task is to coordinate and improve the inner structure and the ecological processes of the valley, deal with the relationships between the resources development and ecological protection, economic development and environmental production, therefore, to improve the landscape ecosystem functions, enhance its anti-disturbed capability and stability, and protect the ecological integrity of the natural world.The Four-lake basin, a tributary of the Yangtze River middle reaches, is located in the hinterland of Jianghan Plain. It was named the Four-lake basin because of the main drainage channel running through four lakes---the Long Lake, the Three Lake, the Egret Lake and the Honghu Lake. It is surrounded by Yangtze River on the directions of the east, the south, the west, and close to Hanjiang River and its tributaries the river of East Jinghe River on the north .The total area of the Four-lake basin is about 11618.51 km2, on which lived 5million people.In the Four-lake basin, Flood disaster, water pollution and schistosomiasis are the serious ecological environmental problem, which connect closely with the landscape structure and space pattern. For water is the core element and connection bridge, the destruction of the hydrological connection and water cycle will be inevitably lead to unbalance of the valley system's structure and failure of functions which are just the essence and root of the ecological environmental problem of he Four-lake basin.Using the remote sensing and GIS to analyze the landscape structure of he Four-lake basin, the result shows that the proportion of each landscape types differs greatly, and the distributing of wetland landscape is uneven. The fragmentation of the various landscapes is relatively lower. Some large patches, as the minority, become of the main part of the whole area.Furthermore, using the Fractal model, the analysis of complexity and stability of the landscape structure in the Four-lake basin proved that complexity and stability of every landscape types are obvious different each other. Among them, the order of complexity is as below: artificial water, natural water, town, dry land and paddy field. The fractal dimension of the artificial water is the highest, while the structure the most complex. The order of stability is as below: the paddy field, the dry land, town, natural water, and artificial water. The order of the stability is just opposite to that of the complexity, the more complex of the landscape, the more unstable. The analysis of the stability and complexity of the various landscape elements provides evidence to the landscape ecological planning and ecological management in the Four-lake basin.The Markov model and the minimum accumulative resistance model are introduced into the landscape planning of the Four-lake basin. Making use of the Markov model, we can get the result of change trend of the landscape structure in the Four-lake basin: the natural water, the paddy field and the non-wetland (mainly the dry land) reducing, and the artificial water and town increasing obviously.Based on transition probabilities calculated by the Markov model, we can get resistance values of each landscape type which the accumulative minimum resistance model needs, and use geography information system to compute the resistance surface diagrams of lakes, artificial water and towns, and finally, make a correspond planning to the area and concrete distribution of the landscape elements such as the lakes, the artificial water, paddy field, the dry land and towns.There are two cases of The concrete planning: one is according with the result of the Four-lake basin landscape structure predicted by Markov model, because the lake area are almost the same large with the present condition, we call it non-retreating land project. Another case will consider the implement of the measure such as retreating the land to the lake and so on, and the land area will be extended obviously, but the proportion of the paddy field will be comparatively lower, we call it retreating land project.The main measures of the landscape ecological construction and ecological management for the Four-lake basin includes: retreating land to lake and recover the wetland, extending lake and wetland areas; rehabilitating and constructing lake ecosystem; connecting river and lakes and transferring water from river to lakes; eradicating oncomelania ecologically and controlling schistosomiasis synthetically; protecting biodiversity of the Four-lake basin; strengthening the construction of Flood storage area, and building up an exclusive administration agency, giving an overall consideration on construction and management of the Four-lake basin.  还原水利论文9@|.Ob#o h'~z

8W+A F[-CVw%A0【中文关键词】 四湖流域; 景观生态规划; 流域生态管理; 分形模型; 马尔科夫模型; 累计最小阻力模型
`G`} yA1N.hR3vQm]0【英文关键词】 the Four-lake basin; landscape ecological planning; ecological management of basin; Fractal model; Markov model; accumulative minimum resistance model
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TAG: 流域 平原 江汉 蔡述明 尹发能
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