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长江河口底栖动物群落对大型工程的响应与生态修复研究 【作者】罗民波 【导师】陆健健

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4m*A/z+S|~0长江河口底栖动物群落对大型工程的响应与生态修复研究
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8i,gq-`%l$^ u9~0【作者】罗民波 【导师】陆健健水利论文3N?Q%Jb \
【作者基本信息】华东师范大学,生态学,2008年,博士

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【中文摘要】 2003年7月~2006年8月在长江河口(N30°10′~32°00′;E121°00′~122°50′)进行了25次较大范围的底栖动物现场调查;较为全面地研究了长江河口底栖动物群落结构对大型工程的响应和长江河口底栖动物生态修复。主要内容有:(1)运用如nMDS、等级聚类、ABC优势度曲线、BIOENV、ANOSIM、SIMPER等生物统计学方法对获得的1382份样本分析了长江口中华鲟保护区潮下带底栖动物群落组成的时空变化及不同区域下潮下带底栖动物的群落结构差异,在国内,首次分析了长江口中华鲟保护区潮下带底栖动物群落与环境因子的关系;(2)通过ABC优势度曲线、ANOSIM、SIMPER、PCA和系统能量生态学EXERGY方法分析在大型河口工程干扰条件下大型底栖动物群落演替特征,可知干扰导致海洋底栖动物的Exergy值下降,底栖动物群落在干扰条件下有向低营养级动物群落方向演替的趋势;(3)在国内,首次获得长江河口主要底栖动物种类生态分类数值、运用AMBI指数方法探讨了大型工程条件下长江河口底栖动物生态分类种类及AMBI指数空间分布和季节变化趋势,进一步分析了底栖动物AMBI指数与相关环...更多境因子的关系,将底栖动物AMBI指数应用到工程条件下长江河口底栖动物受干扰程度的评估,为国内工程对河口底栖动物影响领域的研究提供了重要手段和方法上的参考;长江口深水航道导堤底栖动物生态修复效果明显,经2004年3月的以巨牡蛎为主要底栖动物的移殖后,长江口深水航道导堤研究区域底栖动物的Exergy值发生较大的变化,在2005年6月Exergy值为2004年3月的8.35倍。St-exergy值从2004年3月的233.29上升到2005年6月的295.52,群落从以甲壳动物为主演变为以软体动物为主的群落结构。主要研究结果如下:1.长江口底栖动物群落对大型工程的响应(1)长江口中华鲟幼鱼保护区及临近水域大型底栖动物研究根据2004年5月、8月、11月和2005年2月(Ⅰ年度)及2005年8月、11月和2006年2月、5月(Ⅱ年度)共2个水文年对中华鲟幼鱼保护区水域(30°15′~31°45′N、121°30′~122°15′E)15个取样站8个航次的采泥样品和阿氏网样品,对底内动物和底上动物的种类组成、生物量、栖息密度、重要种的优势度、群落多样性和结构及时间空间动态变化进行分析。结果表明,底内动物共出现15种,种类组成贫乏,优势种变化明显,底内动物生物量和栖息密度平均值分别为1.4±0.21 g/m2和11.33±0.43 ind/m2,生物量和栖息密度总体呈现下降趋势,物种多样性指数低并有下降趋势,群落结构极不稳定;底上动物底栖动物59种,组成有明显季节和年度变化,底上动物生物量和栖息密度平均值分别为15.58±1.25×10-2g/m2和6.81±0.72×10-2ind/m2;底上动物生物量和栖息密度略呈现下降趋势,优势种的种类及优势度年际有较大变化,种类数和生物量北支高于南支。底内动物2个年度生物量平均值季节变化为夏季>春季>秋季>冬季(ANOVA,P<0.05),底上动物2个年度生物量平均值季节变化为春季>冬季>秋季>夏季(ANOVA,P<0.05),底内动物与底上动物的季节变化具有一定的不平衡性。底内动物ABC曲线2个年度变化趋势基本一致,W值在0.2~0.3之间,说明长江口中华鲟保护区底内动物群落以较大型底栖动物为主,底上动物ABC曲线2个年度变化趋势亦一致,W值在-0.06~-0.02之间,说明长江口中华鲟保护区底上动物群落以小型底栖动物为主,且均受到一定程度的干扰。通过对潮下带底内动物和底上动物与环境因子的BIOENV分析表明,盐度对长江口中华鲟保护区底上动物群落的分布起重要作用,其次为水温和pH值,与DO和水深的关系不大。底内动物的群落结构在夏季、秋季与冬季与盐度有较大的相关性。(2)洋山深水港周围海域潮下带底栖动物群落对大型工程的响应底内动物生物量从2003-2005年生物量总体上呈现下降趋势,底内动物种类年际变化没有显著性差异,优势种季节、年度的更替现象明显,Shannon-Wiener物种多样性指数(H′)呈现从2003年到2005年逐渐降低的趋势,2003-2005年度H′值均小于1,底泥的污染较为严重,单纯度(C)上升,丰富度下降,群落结构趋于简单化。底上动物生物量从2001-2005年生物量总体上呈现先上升后下降趋势,2003年生物量为2001年的2.71倍,2005年生物量为2001年的0.69倍,大桥区、港区和航道区三个区的4个年度平均生物量,以港区的生物量为最高,航道区次之,大桥区的最低;底上动物种类逐年减少,出现优势种(优势度Y≥0.02)16种,冬季优势种为9种,春季优势种为12种,夏季优势种为12种,2001-2005年3季共同优势种为葛氏长臂虾,优势种的年际演替和栖息地缩小现象明显;Shannon-Wiener物种多样性指数(H′)呈现从2001年到2005年总体下降的趋势,单纯度(C)上升,群落结构稳定性下降。洋山港工程于2002年6月开工,工程前的底上动物群落结构受到中等程度的干扰,开工后,从2003年到2005年的2、5和8月,群落结构总体受到较大干扰,说明工程对所研究区域总体有干扰影响,群落在2003年到2005年的ABC曲线与2001年的相比,差异较大,受工程建设干扰的程度加大。在2001年的2、5和8月,生物量曲线和丰度曲线有一定的交叉,在2003年到2005年的2、5和8月生物量曲线在丰度曲线之下,说明底栖动物群落中出现了较多的生物量小的种类,替代了原来的种数较少且占总生物量较大的种类,在工程条件下,原来部分的优势种生物量减少,出现一定程度的衰退。通过PCA分析,可以较为全面和直观地获得底上动物群落在年际的变动状况,从2001年到2005年,PCA值从-1到1,逐渐从群落结构未受干扰的状态演变为受到严重干扰的状态,同时各站点群落结构的分散性增加,相似性降低,与2001年工程开工前的群落结构相比,2003-2005年,整个底上动物群落受到工程的干扰程度差异性加大,群落出现明显分化现象。(3)大型工程条件下洋山岛周围海域潮间带大型底栖动物研究分别于2003年、2004年和2005年8月在洋山岛周围海域潮间带,设置4个潮间带断面,按《全国海岸带和海涂资源综合调查简明规程》进行底栖动物研究,运用群落多样性指数进行分析。结果表明,2003-2005年研究水域潮间带底栖动物共记录33种,以软体动物和节肢动物占优势,底栖动物出现种类数为2005年(21种)>2003年(19种)>2004年(13种),2003年8月优势种为3种,2004年8月优势种为1种,2005年8月优势种为5种,3个年度的调查中无共同优势种。底栖动物生物量平均为22.76±2.55 g/m2,潮间带底栖动物群落稳定性呈现由2003年到2004年同期急剧下降的趋势,在2005年8月出现一定程度的恢复。群落多样性指数分析表明,大洋山东北断面结构最稳定,其次为东海大桥东断面和大洋山东南断面,东海大桥西断面群落结构最不稳定。(4)大型工程条件下洋山港周围海域底栖动物群落Exergy变化Exergy变化,全区底内动物Exergy呈现在2001年Exergy值从2月、5月到8月逐渐升高,2003年2月、5月、8月逐渐降低;2005-2006年以8月最高,2004年的5月到8月比较接近。2001年和2003-2006年度变化为2003年(104.0J·m-2)>2004年(47.8J·m-2)>2001年(41.8 J·m-2)>2006年(35.7J·m-2)>2005年(25.6 J·m-2)(ANOVA,P<0.01),2003-2006年全区的Exergy平均值为54.9 J·m-2;与2001年相比,2003年出现较大幅度上升,从2003年到2006年,处于下降趋势,以2005年为最低。全区各年度的Exergy平均值为52.1 J·m-2;2003-2006年大桥区、港区和航道区3个区域中,以港区的Exergy最高,航道区次之,大桥区最低。全区底上动物St-exergy值从2001年2、5、8月到2003-2005年2、5、8月整体略呈下降趋势(ANOVA,P<0.05),从2001年的352降为2005年的316。全区平均St-exergy值为326,2003-2006年4年度的St-exergy值平均为320,与2001年的352相比,有所下降。(5)大型工程条件下洋山港周围海域底栖动物群落AMBI指数变化在2003~2005年2月,枯水期底内动物的AMBI指数与底层悬浮物浓度、香农-威纳多样性指数(H′)和丰富度(种类数)有显著的相关性,底层悬浮物浓度在800mg/m3时,对底内动物的AMBI指数会发生作用,随着底层悬浮物浓度的升高,AMBI指数出现上升趋势,说明水体环境中受干扰程度加大,在底层悬浮物浓度达到1460 mg/m3时,底内动物的AMBI指数达到最大值,受干扰的程度亦达到最大。在2003年-2005年8月,丰水期底栖动物的AMBI指数与底内动物生物量(g/m2)、栖息密度(ind/m2)、香农-威纳多样性指数(H′)和丰富度(种类数)有显著的负相关性。在底内动物生物量为5.00g/m2时,AMBI指数为良,群落未受到干扰;栖息密度在26.00 ind/m2时、H′值为0.45或物种种类数在1.75种/m2的条件下,可维持底内动物群落处在良好状态,AMBI值接近于零。2003-2005年2月,枯水期,底内动物的AMBI指数从2003-2005年总体呈上升趋势(ANOVA,P<0.05),EG(ecological group)Ⅰ出现消失现象,EGⅡ增加,EGⅢ下降,尤其是EGV总体呈现上升趋势。2003-2005年8月,丰水期,底内动物的AMBI指数从2003-2005年总体呈上升趋势(ANOVA,P<0.05),EG1出现大幅度降低,EGⅡ增加,EGⅢ迅速上升,EGⅤ总体呈现上升趋势。总体上,生态类群的变化呈现从敏感种向机会主义种转化的趋势。2.底栖动物的生态修复研究——人工增殖放流条件下长江口导堤潮间带底栖动物群落变化2002年3月在长江口新建的北导堤N6区段试投放底栖动物10t的基础上,2004年3月在南、北导堤通过投放以巨牡蛎为主的底栖动物5t,开展底栖生物修复试验。试验结果表明:经过15个月,试验区底栖动物种类共有21种,比本底值增加了9.5倍;总生物量和总栖息密度分别为26489.43 g·m-2和3399.11 ind·m-2,比本底值分别增加了40.31倍和7.50倍,Shannon-Wiener多样性指数为0.98,比本底值提高了3.08倍。其中巨牡蛎生物量和栖息密度增加明显,巨牡蛎的生物量和栖息密度分别为19328.84 g·m-2和918.67 ind·m-2,分别是所投放巨牡蛎生物量和栖息密度的483.39倍和140.47倍(t-test,P<0.01)。初步评估整个长江口导堤巨牡蛎的总重量已达719076t以上,已初步形成以附着型贝类为主的底栖动物群落。经2004年3月的以巨牡蛎为主要底栖动物的移殖后,长江口深水航道导堤研究区域底栖动物的Exergy值发生较大的变化,在2005年6月Exergy值为2004年3月的8.35倍。St-exergy值从2004年3月的233.29上升到2005年6月的295.52,群落从以甲壳动物为主演变为以软体动物为主的群落结构。3.工程条件下洋山深水港水域底栖动物群落多样性指标与能量生态学指标EXERGY、群落结构AMBI指数变化比较群落多样性指标变化,在洋山深水港工程条件下,底内动物生物量从2003-2005年生物量总体上呈现下降趋势(ANOVA,P<0.05),底内动物种类年际变化没有显著性差异,优势种季节、年度的更替现象明显,Shannon-Wiener物种多样性指数(H′)呈现从2003年到2005年逐渐降低的趋势,2003-2005年度H′值均小于1,底泥的污染较为严重,单纯度(C)上升,丰富度下降,群落结构趋于简单化;底上动物生物量从2001-2005年生物量总体上呈现先上升后下降趋势(ANOVA,P<0.05),2003年生物量为2001年的2.71倍,2005年生物量为2001年的0.69倍;底上动物种类逐年减少,出现优势种(优势度Y≥0.02)16种,冬季优势种为9种,春季优势种为12种,夏季优势种为12种,2001-2005年3季共同优势种为葛氏长臂虾,优势种的年际演替现象明显;Shannon-Wiener物种多样性指数(H′)呈现从2001年到2005年总体下降的趋势,单纯度(C)上升,群落结构稳定性下降(罗民波等,2007)。Exergy值的变化,底内动物,2003-2006年各年度的Exergy值整体呈现下降趋势,以2004年为最低(ANOVA,P<0.05);底上动物,与2001年相比,2003年出现较大幅度上升,从2003年到2006年,处于下降趋势,以2005年为最低,与2001年度相比,2003-2006年底上动物exergy差异极显著(ANOVA,P<0.01)。全区底内动物St-exergy值在2003-2005年2、5、8月差别不大,2006年5、8月与前3个年度的5、8月相比,St-exergy值呈现下降趋势(ANOVA,P<0.01);全区底上动物St-exergy值从2001年2、5、8月到2003-2005年2、5、8月整体略呈下降趋势,从2001年的352降为2005年的316,各年度St-exergy值在整个研究区域内差异显著(ANOVA,P<0.05)。Exergy值可以从能量生态学角度作为评估大型工程条件下河口底栖动物变化的指标。AMBI指数变化,底内动物的AMBI指数是根据底内动物的生态类群变化获得的结果,不受底栖动物生物量和栖息密度的影响。从2003-2005年的2月和8月,底内动物的AMBI指数呈上升趋势(ANOVA,P<0.05),说明在工程条件下底内动物受到的外界扰动增大,生态类群(EG)发生了一定的演替。可以通过运用AMBI指数反映大型工程条件下河口底内动物的变化指征,且在结合分析环境因子条件下,较为直接地获得底内动物EG变化过程中的环境胁迫(像悬浮物等)的量度。  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【英文摘要】 This paper first comprehensively summarized the master estuary benthos characteristics and put out AMBI index list of the Yangtze estuary benthos.Moreover, based on 25 surveys about benthos(intertidal and subtidal)from Feb.,2001 to Aug., 2006 and relatively historical data in the Yangtze Estuary(N30°10′~32°00′; E121°00′~122°50′),this paper did a analysis on benthos ecological characters and filled up the blank of study on the estuary benthos in China.The intertidal benthos was normally collected by benthos crab,while subtidal benthos collected by deep-water Agassiz trawl,benthos crab and so on.Totally,there were 1382 benthos samples collected.The paper includes four main parts,the first is summary on estuary benthos environment and its ecology characters;the second is study on the spatial and temporal changes of community structure of the subtidal benthos using some biostatistics methods;the third is study on the spatial and temporal changes of community structure of the intertidal ben...更多thos using some biostatistics methods;the forth is the research to Exergy and ABMI index characteristics of the benthos under the huge estuary engineering impact.The main conclusions follow:1.The community's response of macrobenthos to huge engineering in Yangtze Estuarine,China(1)Acipenser sinensis Gray is the first national class protection animal in China. It is a typical model of sea-river migration fish.It is a biggest kind of the individual in existing 27 kinds of sturgeons order in world fish,mainly distributing in the East China Sea,Yellow sea and the Yangtze River in China.Mostly,Acipenser sinensis lives in the ocean.From June to August,the mature individual arrives at Changjiang Estuary for procreation migration.In September or October,it reaches Hubei Province along the Changjiang River and gets over the winter there.In October or November of the second year,Acipenser sinensis begins to spawn and returns to the ocean soon.In spring of the second year,young sturgeon arrives at Changjiang estuary from April to August.After September,the 30cm-long young sturgeon goes into the ocean successively.Based on the macrobenthos taken in 15 stations from May,2004 to February 2005(YearⅠ)and from August,2005 to May,2006(YearⅡ)in Nature Reserve of juvenile Chinese sturgeon Acipenser sinensis,the species composition, biomass and abundance were obtained.Analysis on species composition,biomass, inhabit density;species dominance and community diversity were discussed.15 species occurred in infauna and the dominance species obviously changes as the seasons going.The biomass and inhabit density of infauna were 1.44±0.21 g/m2 and 11.33±0.43 ind/m2 separately.The community index,infauna community is instable. Epifauna has 59 species.The biomass and inhabit density of infauna declined from the first year to the second.As the seasons and years going by,species changes a lot and the dominance species have greatly difference.Epifauna community diversity is relatively rich and the community is more stable as the comparison to infauna.The parr of Acipenser sinensis is very frangible.Because of the degradation of water environment in Changjiang estuary,especially for the eutrophication and the water pollution,quantification research on the bait resource for the parr is extremely important.The seasonal change of infauna and epifauna biomass has unbalanced characteristics.(2)As a living place of various fishes,shrimps,crabs and parrs and famous for the Zhoushan Fishing Ground,the Hangzhou Bay ecosystem has the typical flimsiness and complexities.In recent years,a series of ocean engineerings started at Hangzhou Bay and were put into use.Benthos has the direct or the indirect relationship with ecosystem of Hangzhou Bay,in the field of most physics and chemistry processes.From 2001 to 2005,an oceanographic comprehensive survey of 20 sampling sites was carried out in waters around the area of Yangshan Islands in Hangzhou Bay(30°32′~30°50′N、121°53′~122°17′E)during the months of February, May and August,representing winter,spring and autumn respectively.The infauna and epifauna were the main survey contents.On the combination of Yangshan Harbor, the results are shown below.There were 31 species of infauna in the 3 years and the species number,biomass and the species diversity declined from 2003 to 2005. Species Shannon-Wiener indexes of infauna,from 2003 to 2005,were less than 1.00 and this indicated that the bottom of research area got polluted.The community of infauna presented simplification.By the comparison to the material in 1982,the biomass raised 2 to 4 times.In 4 years of 2001,2003,2004 and 2005,the total number of epifauna species is 77.Biomass presented rising in year 2003 and dropped later.There were 16 dominant species(Y≥0.02)and the succession of dominant species on the annual was obvious.Species Shannon-Wiener index slightly declined from 2001 to 2005(no survey in year 2002).The disturbance of the Yangshan engineering made the benthos habitat into fragmentation and the stabilization of benthos community structure descended.From the PCA analysis,the eipbenthos community differentiation of the 2003 to 2005 community got a lot change comparing with the 2001 condition.(3)An oceanographic comprehensive intertidal survey was carried out in waters around the area of Yangshan Islands in Hangzhou Bay(30°32′~30°50′N、121°53′~122°17′E)during the months of August from 2003 to 2005.As comparison of the synchronization material in years of 2003 and 2005,analysis on species composition,biomass,inhabit density,species dominance and community diversity are discussed.33 species occurred in infauna and the dominance species obviously changes as the years going by.From the community index and the community cluster, MDS analysis,infauna community is instable.As the years going by,species changes a lot,especially;the dominance species have greatly difference.From the community analysis,we found the communities of Northeast Yangshan Islands Section are the most stable and the West East China Sea Bridge Section was the most unstable one.(4)In February,May and August of 2001,the Exergy value of epifauna went up while, in 2003,the Exergy value from February,May to August went down under the ocean engineering condintion.In the two years of 2005 and 2006,Exergy of August got the highest value in the year.Among the five years,the Exergy change compositor was year 2003(104.0 J/m2)>year 2004(47.8 J/m2)>year 2001(41.8 J/m2)>year 2006 (35.7 J/m2)>year 2005(25.6 J/m2)(ANOVA,P<0.01).The st-exergy of epifuana declined from 2001(352)to 2005(316)(ANOVA,P<0.05).(5)From February 2003 to February 2005,the AMBI index of low water period had significant correlation to the suspended substance concentration,Shannon-wiener index(H')and the abundance index of the bottom environment.As the suspended substance concentration was 800mg/m3,the infauna benthos AMBI would be affected and would reach the maximum when the suspended substance concentration was 1460mg/m3.From August 2003 to August 2005,the AMBI index of high water period had negative significant correlation to the biomass,density,Shannon-wiener index (H')and the abundance index of the bottom environment.As the infauna biomass was 5.00g/m2,the infauna benthos AMBI would be fine and got no significant impact. When the infauna density reached 26.00 ind/m2 and the H'value was 0.45 or the abundance was 1.75ind/m2,the infauna community could be in fine state while the infauna benthos AMBI index was close to zero.From February 2003 to February 2005,the AMBI index of low water period presented increasing tendency(ANOVA,P <0.05).The AMBI classification showed that some areas showed a transitional to polluted benthic community health,dominated by EG V while the EGⅠdisappeared. From August 2003 to August 2005,the AMBI index of high water period presented increasing tendency(ANOVA,P<0.05).The AMBI classification showed t a transitional to polluted benthic community health,dominated by EGⅢandⅤwhile the EGⅠdisappeared.Generally,the ecological group of the infauna had the transformation from the sensitive species to the first order opportunistic species.2.The ecological restoration in Yangtze estuaryA restoration experiment of benthos w as conducted on the newly built northern and southern guided dykes located at the Changjiang River estuary.Ten tons of benthos had been put in the N 6 region of northern guided dyke in M arch of 2002 and 5 tons of benthos(mainly Crassostrea sp.)were put on the intertidal zone of the northern and southern guided dykes with 10 000 m long in March of 2004.The mean biomass and mean density of putting benthos were 43.15 g·m-2and 10.70ind·m-2 respectively in 2004.The result showed that,15 months later,the benthos species reached 21 species,the biomass and density were 26489.43 g·m-2and 3399.11ind·m-2 respectively,Shannon-Wiener diversity index is 0.98 in the experiment zone. Compared with the background,the species number,biomass,density and diversity index increased 9.5 times,40.31 times,7.50 times and 3.08 times respectively. Among them,the biomass and density of Crassostrea sp.are 19328.84 g·m-2and 918.67 ind·m-2,increased 483.39 times and 140.47 times,respectively compared with putting biomass and density.3.Comparison between the biodiversity index,Exergy and the AMBI index of the benthos under huge estuary engineering,in Yangshan Deep-water HarborBiodiversity change of the benthos in Yangshan deep-water harbor.There were 31 species of infauna in the 3 years and the species number,biomass and the species diversity declined from 2003 to 2005.Species Shannon-Wiener indexes of infauna,from 2003 to 2005,were less than 1.00 and this indicated that the bottom of research area got polluted.The community of infauna presented simplification.By the comparison to the material in 1982,the biomass raised 2 to 4 times.In 4 years of 2001,2003,2004 and 2005,the total number of epifauna species is 77.Biomass presented rising in year 2003 and dropped later.There were 16 dominant species(Y≥0.02)and the succession of dominant species on the annual was obvious.Species Shannon-Wiener index slightly declined from 2001 to 2005(no survey in year 2002).The disturbance of the Yangshan engineering made the benthos habitat into fragmentation and the stabilization of benthos community structure descended.Change of the Exergy in Yangshan deep-water harbor.From year 2003 to 2006,the Exergy of infauna declined(ANOVA,P<0.05)and,from 2001 to 2006,the Exergy of epifauna got the tendency that went up in 2003 and then went down from year 2003 to 2006.By the comparison between the results of year 2001 and year from 2003 to 2006,the difference was significant(ANOVA,P<0.01).This indicated that the infauna Exergy declined during the huge estuary engineering while the epifauna Exergy rose in the first engineering year and declined from the high point. Exergy can be used as a good way to estimate the benthos sub-ecosystem long term evolvement.AMBI change in Yangshan deep-water harbor.AMBI index gets the result from the species distribution on the ecological group(EG).In Feb. and Aug.from year 2003 to 2005,the AMBI index of infauna went up and this could get the indication that the infauna received heavily disturbance or polluted.From the analysis,the suspended solid is one of the main reasons for the infauna ecology succession,especially in Feb. from year 2003 to 2005.  还原水利论文)t"zL+xb

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【中文关键词】 长江河口; 底栖动物群落; 大型工程; 生态修复
a;Pyn-x0【英文关键词】 Yangtze estuary; macrobenthos community structure; huge estuary engineering; ecological restoration水利论文:WD o)af1}
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