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生物标志物法研究多环芳烃对海水养殖鱼类的毒性效应【作者】林建清 【导师】洪华生

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生物标志物研究多环芳烃对海水养殖鱼类的毒性效应
O0Ze {(U6sS0Using Biomarkers to Study PAHs' Toxicological Effects on Marine Fish

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?"{6qM2?2C*o0作者林建清导师洪华生水利论文/y"wD c9H`
【作者基本信息】厦门大学,环境科学,2002年,博士

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z+Y9ev O;|d W y0【中文摘要】 污染物对海洋生物毒性效应的早期预警和生物标志物指示作用研究是当今海洋生态毒理学研究的热点和前沿。本论文以湄洲湾海域和厦门西海域养殖区为研究区域,采用现代分析技术,从分子水平上系统研究了多环芳烃(PAH)在海水、沉积物、养殖鱼类中的含量分布:通过现场实验,实验室暂养、投毒和恢复实验系统测定了养殖鱼类的肝脏、胆汁、鳃、全血等不同器官、组织的生化指标及养殖鱼类肝脏、胆汁的化学指标,探讨了这些指标对水环境多环芳烃污染的生物指示作用。取得如下新的成果: 1 首次系统研究了多环芳烃在湄洲湾海水、沉积物的含量分布,采用PAH型式的分子指纹方法分析了水体、沉积物中PAH的来源特征:指出:湄洲湾海水的多环芳烃主要来源于石油污染,沉积物中的多环芳烃主要来源于燃料的高温燃烧。 研究了多环芳烃在厦门西海域养殖区的表层海水、沉积物中的含量分布,并应用PAH型式的分子指纹方法分析了其来源特征。指出:(1)厦门西海域养殖区海水和沉积物的多环芳烃污染已很严重。表层海水的∑PAH(16种PAH)已达4.55μg/L,沉积物的∑PAH已达2.86μg/g。厦门西海域养殖区海水和沉积物的多环芳烃来源均为混合来源—既有燃料的...更多高温燃烧来源,又有石油污染来源。 2 运用水生生物多环芳烃暴露水平的安全标准对养殖水体的安全性进行了评价,指出:湄洲湾海水的多环芳烃污染已开始超标,而厦门西海域的多环芳烃污染已严重超标。 3 系统研究了多环芳烃在养殖鱼类肝脏和胆汁的含量分布,探讨了其富集和清除作用,以及对水环境多环芳烃污染的指示作用。结果表明:鱼肝脏的多环芳烃浓度可作为指示水环境多环芳烃污染的生物标志物和早期预警指标。鱼胆汁对多环芳烃亦具有很强的富集作用和清除作用,可作为指示水环境多环芳烃污染程度的生物标志物和早期预警指标。 4 优化了鱼胆汁中1—羟基萘和1—羟基芘的荧光分析方法,测定了1—羟基萘和1—羟基芘在鲈鱼、真鲷胆汁中的含量,探讨了萘和芘在鱼胆汁中的代谢比率、清除作用。结果显示:(1)胆汁中萘的代谢比率低,易蓄积;而芘的代谢比率高,易清除。(2)投毒实验结果表明:随着芘暴露浓度的增大,鲈鱼胆汁中芘的代谢比率增大。(3)胆汁中1—羟基芘浓度可作为指示水体芘污染程度的生物标志物。 5 系统研究了鲈鱼、真鲷体内不同器官、组织的生化指标——过氧化氢酶(CAT)、超氧化物歧化酶(SOD)、脂质过氧化(LPO)指标,结合水体及生物样的PAH污染分析结果,探讨了这些指标对水环境PAH污染的指示作用。结果显示:鱼肝脏的CAT活性、SOD活性。MDA浓度与水体的PAH污染程度具有良奸的相关性。在实验条件下,鱼肝脏的生化指标变化与mH污染强度之间具有可逆性:可联合作为水体 日污染程度的早期预警指标和生物标志物。  还原水利论文N.]1}SG%S.sV}o$e

$PS0NhY+B0【英文摘要】 PoIycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) are priority trace organic pollutants in the CLRTAP(Convention on Long-Range Transboundary Air PolIution) POPs (persistent organic poIlutants)protocol. Both laboratory experiments and fie1d surveys unequivocally demonstrated that PAHadversely affect estuarine and marine organisms. PAH are implicated in the development ofIesions and tumors in fish, they produce biochemical disruptions and cell damage that Iead tomutations, developmental malformations and canceL Although many marine organisms do noteXhibit acute responses to PAH' exposure, but suffer sublethal effects. lmpacts on popu1ation andcommunity may not be detected until years after initial PAH' exposure. Therefore, it is importantto develop criteria to indicate PAH' poIlution status in the marine environments. Biomarkers arepromising tools fOr assessing the exposure to toxicants, and predicting the likely response. Sincethe complexity of the marine environments, the toxic effects to biota a...更多re very complicated,therefore, the use of biomarkers for assessing marine environments is still rather ambitious.The aim of this study is to examine PAH' distribution in tt'ater and sediment. anaI}'ze theirsources, and try to develop a set of biomarkers to indicate PAH' pollution level in the fOllox"ingstudv areas.The Meizhou Ba} located in the mid-east coast of Fujian, China, is a semi-encIosed narrot" ba}'stretching deep into the inland t',ith favorable hydrologicaI circulation conditions and designed asone of the four key deepx"ater transshipment ports in China. With the construction of ports.oil-refinery works and power industry in the coastal area; PAH' pollution is an potentialenvironmental risk factor in this marine environment, but no data of PAH IeveI in this marine.'environment were examined before. Western Xiamen Harbor, located in Xiamen. China t"ithharbor rapidly development; PAH' levels in water, suspended particulate mattef, pore t"ater andsediment samples t'ere studied before, but no data on the maricultura1 sites in this area t'+ereexamined yet.The field surveys and lab experiments tvere designed to study the distribution and source ofPAH' polIution in x"ater, sediment; the PAH' concentration and distribution in marine fish organ(of the fish LateolabImjaPo)1iclls and PagivsOnIlls Inajor); the PAH' BCF factors of liver and bilein marine fish (Laleolabral jtwo)1ItIts and Pag7vso))Ills ))1ajbr); the reIationship between PAH'exposure and biochemicaI response (CAT SOD, LPO) and the metabolic rate of naphthalene andpyrene in fish bile. The foIIoving results "ere obtained fl In Meizhou Ba',t(l) The source of PAH in surface seawater was mainly from crude oil (petrogeniccontamination ) and the source of PAH in sediments xvas mainlv from fuel-combustion(pyrogentic).(2) Refer to the extrapolated safe levels developed by various countries and internationalorganizations for aquatic organisms exposed to PAH in x"ater to assess aquatic quality formaricultural purpose, and the results sho''?ed lhat PAH' pollution in seat'rater was alread}' a threatfor its maricultural use.(3) PAH' levels in maricultural site tvere much higher than that in the adjacent non-mariculturalsite, and it showed that mariculture was one of the contributors of marine PAH' pollution inseaLateF.2 Western Xiamen Harbort(1 ) PAH' levels in surface seat"ater and sediment of the survey site "ere quite severe. Z PAH(for l6 EPA priority PAH) concentration in surface sea''ater t'as 4.55 llg/L, and 2.86 Ped insurface sediment.(2) The survey maricultural site was quite polluted, and it t'as not suitable for maricuIturalpurPose.3 The resu1ts shot',ed that fish biIe could concentra1e parent PAH, and the PAH' concentrationcorrela1ed to the PAH' pollution levels in seawatef, thus, it could be used as a biomarker toindicate PAH' pol1ution leve1s in seawater. The metabolism of naphthalene and pyrene ''-as alsoIVs  还原水利论文 p#gv9| C!F@+Gw}B

h)[5qR3hlf'z0【中文关键词】 生物标志物; 多环芳烃(PAH); 海水鱼类的毒性效应; 抗氧化酶
jJA1V}A[0【英文关键词】 biomarker; PAH; ecotoxicological effects to marine fish; antioxidant enzymes
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