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雷州半岛红树林及其保护策略研究【作者】韩维栋 【导师】卢昌义; 林鹏

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雷州半岛红树林及其保护策略研究
/q5y M%d { b.Z0Study on Mangrove and Its Conservational Strategy of Leizhou Peninsula, China

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作者韩维栋导师卢昌义; 林鹏水利论文h&X2g K9[.}
【作者基本信息】厦门大学,植物学,2002年,博士

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J]*P3ob0【中文摘要】 雷州半岛位于中国大陆的最南端,东经109°30′-110°55′,北纬20°12′-21°35′,属北热带海洋季风气候;沿海滩涂记录有海洋生物2000余种和鸟类183种;潮间带面积为9.91万hm2;有红树林及其附近滩涂面积共20279hm2,其中红树林面积7305.8hm2和宜林地滩涂面积9609.7hm2。雷州半岛红树林湿地是我国政府2002年(?)月指定保护的国际重要湿地之一,目前隶属湛江红树林国家级自然保护区筹备办公室管理,其保护管理获得荷兰国的援助。 红树林是热带和亚热带海岸潮间带的木本植物群落,有独特的景观、丰富的生物多样性和生理生态过程复杂性等特点;具有提供海岸保护、林区资源直接利用、环境质量维护、近海渔业维持、动物栖息、娱乐、教育与科学研究等重要的生态服务功能价值。目前国内外对红树林开展了大量的科学研究工作,成果多集中在普通生态学、生理学、生物化学等领域,在恢复生态学和环境经济学领域的研究还处于刚起步阶段。本论文从植物组成、群落生态、恢复生态、生态价值和保护管理等方面系统阐述了雷州半岛红树林及其保护策略。研究结果如下: 1.基于文献综述和作者的野外调查研究表明,...更多雷州半岛的红树林植物区系有乡土植物28科50种(包括3变种),其中红树植物8科13种,半红树植物6科9种(包括1变种),伴尘植物11科15种(包括1变种),其它陆生或盐沼植物9科13种(包括1变种);引种于海南省的外来红树植物种有3科7种;同时,记录单叶蔓荆(Vitex trifolia var .simplicifolia)和海南草海桐(Scaevola hainanensis)2种为新的半红树植物(包括1变种);主要组成有14种群落类型,其中以白骨壤(Avicennia marina)群落分布面积最大,秋茄(Kandelia candel)群落次之;各群落树种组成和空间结构简单,高2-5m,郁闭度0.5-0.95,沿海分布点有百余处;其进展演替趋向于单优树种组成的顶极群落。由于土地使用性质转化,过去8年中红树林面积消失41%;人为破坏活动导致红树林群落外貌低矮。 2.在雷州市附城镇潮间带红树林区,根据以空间代替时间的研究方法,以造林前立地基本一致为前提条件,选取3块人工恢复的无瓣海桑(Sonneratia apetala)林(分别于2000年、1997年和1995年造林)的代表性样地,以分析无瓣海桑人工林的土壤动态;于2001年4月在每样地按土深0-20cm,20-40cm,40-60cm获得3个土样并分析它们的理化特性。结果表明,随着生态恢复过程的进展,无瓣海桑人工林包含着尘境土壤理化性质明显的变化过程:pH值(测定结果范围为4.48-7.33,下同)迅速降低,20-40cm深土层降低pH值年均最高达0.43;机械组成中粘粒含量(颗粒直径小于0.005mm:3.13-31.31%)和有机质含量(15.96-49.33%)、风干土壤含水量(37.3-79.6g/kg)、可溶性SO42-含量(1.49-4.64cmol/kg)、全Fe含量(12.99-18.30%)趋于增加,尤其在表层土壤有明显的增加;相反,全磷(0.17-0.40g/kg)和HCO-(0.11-0.32cmol/kg)含量则趋于减少。盐分含量(4.32-7.89g/kg)、全氮含量(0.48-1.66g/kg)、可溶性Ca2+(0.31-0.78cmol/kg)、Mg2+(1.24-3.73cmol/kg)和. CI(1·18-22·22cmol/ks)含量趋于增加,但较其它所坝定成分的变化复杂。6年生 林地土壤具有与当地红树林酸性硫酸盐土的基本相同的特征,说明在无瓣海桑人工 林16年的早期生态恢复过程中,该红树林林地山潮间盐土朝向酸性硫酸盐土发展- 的成土过程为一快速过程。 3.根揽对雷州市附城镇韶山和岚北两无瓣海桑生态恢复林地的样方调查、标耻 木材积生长分析、凋落物收集、干重热值实验分析和网袋就地凋落叶分解试验,结 果表明:韶山4年生和岚北7年生无瓣海桑群落平均单株无瓣海桑材积分别为 25.208 din’和 101.415 din’;群落现存生物量分别为 8.676 kg砌’和 25.06Ikg/m’,士_ 下部分现存生物量与地上部分现存生物量比例分别为 0.刀和 0.32;当年现存生物_ 量分别为4.川1帕/(灯·J和8.1柏屿/(汀·幻:川of年2月份至m02年1月份期问 年凋落物总晕分别为1.497k/(m’@。)和1.895吨/(m’@J;岚北当年群落净生物量生_ 产力为 1(040 kg/m’(2001 年):群落能!三现存量分别人 152.553MJ/m’7Am_ 蚊3.化洲J。;l’:岚北当年(20m年)能量固定量刀144.132U/d,刀01年年能量归让- 量分u为韶山 27.92lMJ/(m’·a)和岚北35.342 MJ/(m’·a),岚北 当年能量净固定量_ 为 179.474 MJ八m\a人 岚北当年光能转化率为 8.10儿凋落叶分解试验结果表明,, 上述两样地的同一季节的落叶分解速率相同,半分解期旱季为门、湿季为 7d,表 现出较高的分解速率。上述数据表明无瓣海桑群落具有显著的高生物量与能量积累- 和归还量的特性,并通过比较表明其生产力水平处于我国红树林群落中的较高值。 尤其是岚北7年生无瓣海桑群落的光能利用  还原水利论文 T7^n1C#qJ{

TS&Dobt0【英文摘要】 Leizhou Peninsula is located in the south most continental end of China with longitude 109°30′ - 110°55′E and latitude 20° 12′- 21°35′N, find with a north tropical oceanic monsoon climate. More than 2 000 species of oceanic biota and 183 species of birds recorded living in its coastal water and wetlands with a total inter tide area 99 100 hm2. Its mangrove wetlands, with an area of 2 0 279 hm2, including 7 305.8 hnTmangrove and 9 609. 7hmmudflats suitable for mangrove growing, was designated as one of wetlands of international importance by the center government of The People' s Republic of China in January 2002 and is now under the management of The Preparative Office of Zhanjiang National Mangrove Nature Reserve with the joint efforts of The Netherlands.Mangroves are woody plant communities of inter-tide areas of tropical and subtropical coastlines, with particular landscape and abundant biodiversity as well as complex biophysical and ecological processes as their distinguishing cha...更多racteristics. Mangroves give ecological services in coastal protection, direct use of the forest resources, near-shore fishery and environmental quality maintenance, animal habitats, recreation, education and scientific research and etc. Lots of scientific works on mangroves were published mainly in general ecology, physiology and biochemistry. However, detailed studies of mangrove are lacking in major areas, especially in the restoration ecology and the environmental economics, which are just at their starting points. The study of mangrove in Leizhou Peninsula drops behind of the most other parts of mangrove world, up to the present less then 20 scientific papers have been published.This paper described the mangrove and its conservational strategy in Leizhou Peninsula in the fields of taxonomy, community ecology, restoration ecology, environmental economics and conservational management science, and the following are the research results:1. Based on both former researches and author' s field observation in Leizhou Peninsula. The mangrove flora of Leizhou Peninsula consisted of native 28 family 50 species(including 3 varieties), among them there were 8 family 13 mangrove species, 6 family 9 semi-mangrove species(including 1 variety), 11 family 15 associate species(including 1 varieties), and other 9 family 13 species(including 1 variety). There were 3 family 7 exotic species introducedfrom Hainan Province. The author recorded Vitex trifolia var. simplicifolia and Scaevolci hainanensis as 2 new semi-mangrove species of the area. There were 14 major mangrove associations, each with one or a few dominant species in simple space structure at height 2-5m and with coverage rate 0.5-0.95, distributed in more than 100 locations along the coastlines. Among the mangrove associations, Ass. Avicennia marina occupied the largest area and Ass. Kandclia candel was the second. The progress succesion of each mangrove association tends to be single species dominant association as its climax. In the past 8 year period 41% mangrove area disappeared due to the mangrove land transferring for other usage and the frequent human activities caused dwarf landscapes of most native mangroves.2 . According to the method of space-substitute-time with condition of similariiv of the environments before planting, three Sonneratia aprtala plantation plots (planted in 2000, 1997, 1!)95, respectively) in Fuchen, Leizhou were selected for the mangrove restoration changes analyses on soil characteristics with a research goal to understand the mangrove restoration' s ecological process in soil. A total of 9 soil samples were collected in the field in April 2001, with each plot having three soil samples from the depth 0-20cm, 2040cmand 4060cm below the soil surface. Test items included pH(soil: water=2.5:1), wind dried soil' s water content(105 "C for 5h), physical particle component, organic content, total salt content, total N, total P, total Fe, and water soluble ions of CO:,", HCO,, Ca*, Mg", SO,"", CF. The results of the items varied as: pH  还原

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4oj/k R'vP/| p0【中文关键词】 红树林; 无瓣海桑; 生态恢复; 生态功能; 保护策略; 雷州半岛水利论文&E.A d*i4F4o S:i2B
【英文关键词】 Mangrove; Sonneratia apetala; ecological restoration; ecological function; conservational strategy; Leizhou Peninsula水利论文/vm#E(yl\)U

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TAG: 红树林 林鹏 卢昌义 韩维栋 雷州半岛
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