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锯缘青蟹Scylla serrata胚胎发育的基础研究【作者】陈锦民 【导师】李少菁

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锯缘青蟹Scylla serrata(Forsk(?)l)胚胎发育的基础研究水利论文RT!|V k.TqP5N
Foundational Studies on the Embryonic Development of the Mud Crab, Scylla Serrata(Forsk(?)l)水利论文J P FZKy U

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%t;R)x'l|c&B!d"`0【中文摘要】 锯缘青蟹Scylla serrata(Forsk?l,1775)是我国重要的养殖经济蟹类,胚胎发育在个体发生中处于重要地位。本实验采用组织学、光学显微镜、电子显微镜观察以及离体培养等技术与方法,对锯缘青蟹胚胎发育过程进行了系统的研究,主要结果如下:1锯缘青蟹排卵大多发生在晚12:00前后,成熟卵子入水后,无论受精与否,最外层卵黄膜都会举起形成壳膜,随即壳膜形态结构和性质发生变化,其外层膜不连续的地方形成微孔,而内层膜去致密化的絮状粘稠物形成粘胶,粘胶通过微孔渗出到卵子表面,壳膜变得富有粘性、延展性和可塑性。在亲体腹肢不断摆动和水流的作用下,壳膜或其上的皱褶相互接触或接触到刚毛上而分别形成卵索和卵柄,卵索和卵柄与壳膜是连续一体的,并逐渐固化变得坚硬和韧性,最终卵子通过卵索和卵柄而牢固附着在亲体的腹部。本实验首次在十足目甲壳动物卵子中发现微孔和粘胶,证实了卵子粘性来自于卵子本身;从而提出卵子附着的壳膜粘连固化的学说。2锯缘青蟹精子入卵后,发生皮层反应而形成受精膜。皮层反应包括致密颗粒首先胞吐以及环形颗粒(Rg)的相继多轮胞吐。每轮Rg的胞吐可以分为受精膜(Fm)的平缓期、形成期和举起期三个...更多阶段。Rg的形成与卵黄颗粒和脂滴以及线粒体密切相关。本实验首次提出线粒体的形态、数量及分布可以很好反映Fm形成的不同阶段,并在国内首次报道Rg的发生以及其胞吐的全过程。3锯缘青蟹成熟卵子为初级卵母细胞,核相处于第一次成熟分裂的中期。在卵子产出30min内第一极体排出并分裂成两个小极体;第二极体随着Fm的形成和举起而排放,在卵子产出后50-60min内排出;第一,二极体分别位于Fm的内外两侧。雄性原核形成早于雌性原核;雌雄原核形成后向卵子中央移动,最后发生联合形成联合核。排卵后的6-8hr内,合子核才开始第一次核分裂。锯缘青蟹为数精入卵,单精受精。4锯缘青蟹的胚胎发育分为10期:Ⅰ受精卵、Ⅱ卵裂期、Ⅲ囊胚期、Ⅳ原肠期、Ⅴ无节幼体期、Ⅵ五对附肢期、Ⅶ七对附肢期、Ⅷ复眼色素形成期、Ⅸ近孵化期、Ⅹ幼体孵出。对10期形态特征进行细致描述并编制了锯缘青蟹胚胎发育表,为育苗生产中胚胎发育的检测提供指导。  还原水利论文:r(}/S4F*D y


【英文摘要】 Scylla serrata(Forsk?l,1775) is an important econimic aquatic breeding crab. Embryo takes a significant position in individual ontogenesis.With the histological techniques,optical microscopy,electron microscopy,in vitro culture techniques,a systematical and fundamental study was made on the embryonic development of Scylla serrata.The main results as follows:1.The female crabs of Scylla serrata usually ovulated during the time of evening to dawn.As the mature oocytes passed through the gonopore and immerged into sea water,whether fertilized or not, their vitelline membranes swelled and formed chorin, immediately the structure and character of chorin changed greatly:with the considerably swelling of chorin , micropores appeared at the incontinuous exochorin;while some of glue,which were produced by endochorin disadensifying flocculent materials, penetrated through the micropores and attached chorin,so chorin became sticky,pliable and extended.With the rapid abdominal pumping of the ovige...更多rous females and the water flowing,a portion of chorin became deflected off the egg’s surface,then chorin and its wrinkles were entangled with each other or caught by ovigerous setae and formed funiculuses and egg stalks respectively.Funiculuses and egg stalks mentioned here,were the different extensional part of chorin,which finally condensed and concreted to form a tough and durable material capable of anchoring the egg mass to the pleopods.We firstly demonstrated the existence of micropores and glue of oocyte in crustaceans, which approved the sticky glue for attachment was from the eggs themselves, and we developed chorin conglutinated-condensed-solidified theory of egg attachment.2.The second envelope,the fertilization membrane(Fm),formed between oocyte and chorin during a complex cortical reation initiated after fertilization.The cortical reation includes the successive exocytosis of two morphologically different granules.Firstly the dense granules undergone exocytosis and formed a thin membrane.As followed that,the ring-shaped granules undergone several rounds of  还原水利论文U#BD K)Pcj

vO K,b~9Nq1K_0【中文关键词】 锯缘青蟹; 胚胎发育; 胚胎膜; 复眼; 色素带; 离体培养水利论文wrD n`y.m/c$y
【英文关键词】 Scylla serrata; Embyonic development; Embyonic envelope; Compound eyes; Pigment band; In vitro culture水利论文]-U!\^,w_ @w)v+FB
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TAG: Scylla 青蟹 陈锦民 李少菁 胚胎
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