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云南省岩溶旅游地质资源特征及其环境保护【作者】黄楚兴 【导师】杨世瑜

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云南省岩溶旅游地质资源特征及其环境保护水利论文WZ6@9t4j/ZJ2B

2f D~ ?3Z*i0作者黄楚兴导师杨世瑜
-UF;p$po'r0【作者基本信息】昆明理工大学,矿产普查与勘探,2003年,博士水利论文fJ+w{(xr{OP

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v]:fr j)A7W0【中文摘要】 据统计,全世界岩溶分布面积约为5.1×106km3,占全球总面积的10%,居住着约10亿人口。从地表以下到海拔500m的青藏高原。都有岩溶发育。我国岩溶分布面积在97万km2左右,约占全国土地总面积的1/10,主要分布的四川、湖北、湖南、广西、贵州和云南,这里是全世界最大的且集中成片的岩溶分布区,发育有“山水甲天下”的桂林、“天下第一奇观”石林以及黄果树、马岭河、织金洞、龙宫等众多国家级岩溶旅游地质景观。同时,西南岩溶区又是我国乃至世界上岩漠化最严重的地区,人口贫困、水土流失加速,岩溶旅游地质资源破坏和环境污染已严重制约着本区旅游业的可持续发展。 云南是我国岩溶分布面积最广的省份之一,岩溶景观品位高、类型全,堪称 “岩溶旅游资源宝库”,极具研究和开发价值。本文以云南省为例,结合旅游学与地质学的特点,分析了云南省岩溶旅游地质资源的分布规律,景观特征及成因机理,与国内外同类型旅游地质资源进行对比后,总结了云南岩溶旅游地质资源的特点和成因规律;进而提出了云南岩溶旅游地质资源的开发策略,探讨了岩溶旅游地质资源的评价内容、评价方法和指标,重点研究了岩溶旅游地质资源的科学价值;最后,对岩溶旅...更多游资源环境保护作了探索性研究。 论文首先回顾了岩溶旅游地学在国内外的研究历史与现状、分布情况和开发现状。旅游地学在国外兴起于20世纪60年代,在我国则是上个世纪80年代,主要是旅游学与地理学的结合,地质学介入旅游学则是近几年的事。所以。学术界对旅游地质、地质旅游、旅游资源等基本概念仍没有一个统一的定义。在比较了当前各种学术观点后,认为旅游地质是一门以地球科学的理论方法为基础并结合其他科学知识,发现、评价、规划、开发、利用及保护具有旅游价值的地质景观和与人类活动有关的古遗迹、遗址,探讨其形成原因、演变历史的一门综合性边缘学科。其任务是研究各种与旅游有关的自然特征、自然景观和人文景观的起因、沿革、演变、类型、分布规律及其意义,其目的是为了组织规划、开发利用自然旅游资源,开辟新的旅游区点,以满足人们参观、游览和科学研究的需要。旅游地质是一门学科,而地质旅游则是人们进行地质考察的专项旅游活动。地质旅游资源是以科学考察、科普活动或地质活动为主要目的,兼顾旅游的专业性、目的性、针对性较强的地质旅游活动的旅游资源;旅游地质资源则是以休养旅游为主要目的,兼顾科普性、群众性、知识性,将地质/地学知识离于旅游活动中,提高旅游品位、旅游科普含量的旅游活动的旅游资源。 针对当前旅游资源分类中存在的交义、重盛和分类标准不一致等问题,提出了以岩溶旅游资源的自然地理环境为主,兼顾其科学性、观赏性和可操作性的分类系统,将岩溶旅游地质资源分成地表岩溶旅游地质资源、地下岩溶旅游地质资源和复合型岩溶旅游地质资源三大类十六亚类。 采用系列的观点,将云南省岩溶旅游资源划分为成因系列、演化系列、景观系列和等级序次系列,并从岩溶旅游地质资撅的景带、景区、景群、景点、景象五个等级划分了云南省岩溶旅游资源的娜级序次系列。 根据碳酸盐岩分布和发育的墓本情况和区城构造演化规律,将云南岩溶地貌分为淇西北摺断带高山一中山峡谷;演东北拗摺带中山峡谷;演中一演东台背斜台褶带山原盆地:演东南摺皱带中山峰从盆地和演西摺断带中山宽谷盆地5种类型。选择其中有代表性的三个地区的三类岩溶旅游地质资源一滨西北岩溶泉华、演中洞穴资源、演东南峰丛(林)的资源类型、特点、分布规律及成景地质作用进行了研究,并对演西北的下给温泉、白水台、天生桥:淇中的祭白龙洞;滇东南的罗平钟山作了个案分析。 滇西北岩溶景观成景岩组多为含杂质的或变质的碳酸盐岩,气候寒冷,但现代构造运动强烈,局部地区水动力条件优越,所以,总体上,区域构造运动是决定淇西北岩溶景观及其环境演化的主要因索.如地壳抬升使白水台地下水位降低,泉华砂化、风化,断裂构造使局部地区的地下水改道,致使景观先后两期的发育形态和方向不同。对商寒岩溶的生物成因机理前人做过不少研究,但一直没有定论,本文分析了C氏三态转化的地球化学机理,结合演西北泉华的特点,提出了生物作用有利于热泉型泉华的生长而不利于冷泉型泉华的形成的新认识. 岩溶洞穴是云南最常见的旅游景观,也是较脆弱的岩溶景观之一,对于洞穴景观的开发与保护,不但要了解其成因特征,还要弄清其发育和演化规律。本文以滨中洞穴群为例,对发育于不同时期的洞穴形态特征、成景地质作用作了较深入的研究,以祭白龙洞为例说明洞穴演化的影响因紊.演中洞穴群按其出露的海拔高程分成三种类型,也即代表三个时代,早期洞穴短小,近垂直延伸,分布于溶丘顶部,其成因与岩石类型有关;中期洞穴近水平延伸,长200一400米,洞穴沉积物景观丰富,其成因与区域构造密切相关;晚期洞穴多水洞,洞道长,线条流畅,是正在发育中的洞穴,主要受地下水运动方向的影响。祭白龙洞的洞穴滴水溶蚀实验结果表示:地下水的饱和度是决定洞穴发育沉积形态还是溶蚀形态的关  还原

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【英文摘要】 The karst tourist resource is one of the most important geological resources for tourism, but the karst environment is always weak. The statistical figure of karst area is 5. IXIOW, and occupied to 10% the earth surfaces. There are a billion permanent residents in the karst regions; the karst landscapes can be seen in Tibet with an elevation of above 5000m in a. s. 1 or in underground. China possesses about 9. 7X 104km2 the karst territory, and accounts for approximately 1/10 of the whole land surface. The karst mainly distribute among Sichuan, Hubei, Hunan, Guangxi, Guizhou and Yunnan provinces, here is the vastest karst area all over the word. Meanwhile, many of national scenic spots such as Guilin that is called "the most beautiful scenery", Shilin is famous for "the first wonder in the world" and Huanggoushu Waterfall, Maolihe George, Zhejinton, Longon Cave so on. But, it is possibly that the rocky desertification in the karst area of southwest of China is the most serious in China...更多 or in the world, the people are poverty and the waste of water and soil is severe. In a word, the damage of karst resources and pollution of karst environment have gravely restricted the sustainable development of tourist industry in this region.Yunnan is one of the widest karst provinces in China, and has abundance and high quality and varied types karst. Yunnan is qualified that is called "a treasure-house of karst tourist resources", and it is valuable for studying and developing in here.Taking Yunnan as an example, this paper first study on the geochemistry traits of karst tourist resources, the distribution patterns and their landscape characteristics, then the causes of formation of karst touristresources. Having compared with the counterparts in home and abroad, this thesis summarized the characteristics and the causes of formation of the karst tourist resources in Yunnan Province, and then put forward to the exploi tation processes and developing policies of karst tourist resources of Yunnan. Finally, make an exploratory study on appraisal contents, appraisal methods and appraisal indexes of karst tourist resources, especially probe into their scientific values, and the methods of environment protection of karst tourist resources.Firstly, this thesis has recalled the studying history of karst tourism earthscience and developing present condition of karst tourist resources. Arming to the current deficiency existing in the classification of karst tourist resource, following the sequence from regional development, emergence, evolution to it's perishing and classify the karst tourist resource, considering to its scientific, appreciative and operative nature. According to the basic law of karst tourist resource developing laws. From characteristics of the overlapping subject of karst tourist resource environment, the broadening the ways to promote the status of the tourist resource, the excavating of the values of tourist resources, as well as the protection of the tourist resource and environment, a new tourist karst resources classify have been put forward. The karst tourist resources can be divided into 3 types and 16 subtypes; the 3 types are karst tourist resources in surface, karst tourist resources in underground and compound karst tourist resources.According to the features of limestone and their structures, on the basis of the karst topographies in Yunnan, this paper put forward the situation and characteristics of Yunnan karst resource developing: the basic situation is: Yunnan has been divided into high mountain and middle mountain valley in northwest fold belt of Yunnan; middle mountain valley in northeast fold belt of Yunnan; plateau basin in fold-anticline beltof feast and middle part of Yunnan; middle mountain feng congC'peak cluster" or "egg box" topography ) basin in fold belt of southeast of Yunnan and middle mountain broad basin in fold belt west of Yunnan province , etc. five types of karst geomorphology. Then, this paper discussed the types, characteristics, distributive pattern and geological ac  还原

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【中文关键词】 岩溶旅游地质资源; 特征; 环境保护; 云南水利论文A4u:V1^,D4L I:jGM'E
【英文关键词】 karst tourist resource; characteristics; environmental protection; Yunnan水利论文yN4S6Y{i'Z4?,u ~tD

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