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三江并流世界自然遗产保护中的旅游地质问题研究【作者】王嘉学 【导师】杨世瑜

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三江并流世界自然遗产保护中的旅游地质问题研究

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作者王嘉学导师杨世瑜
_8mpk&nv0【作者基本信息】昆明理工大学,矿产普查与勘探,2005年,博士水利论文.{N N*V.EdH L

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a*D)YO0uTd$rLN ~0【中文摘要】 旅游地质问题是旅游学与地质学交叉渗透的一个新的研究领域,是从地质景观/地质遗迹中厘定旅游地质资源、发掘其旅游价值,进而寻求利用与保护途径的重要学术问题与方法问题。它涉及了旅游地质资源调研与评价、利用与保护及其利用过程中的人地关系协调发展模式等方面的问题。可以说,旅游地质问题是旅游学与地质学的交叉学科——旅游地质学的理论与方法核心,其研究将推动旅游地质学这一新兴学科的建立与发展,并在旅游业发展实践中发挥重要作用。“三江并流”是中国当前面积最大、唯一符合全部四项标准的世界自然遗产地,是构成云南旅游精品和名品的“香格里拉”的主体部分,同时也是我国最为贫困的区域之一。该区地处两大大地构造单元接壤、长期地质作用活跃地带,生物多样性、景观多样性、文化多样性十分突出,是备受国内外关注的古特提斯、全球变化、生物多样性、民族文化及民族经济等方面的关键研究区。三江并流世界自然遗产的保护,不但是履行世界遗产公约的根本要求,还牵涉到长江流域、云南省内怒江、澜沧江、独龙江流域的生态安全,甚至涉及国际生态安全问题。生态一地质环境是世界自然遗产保护的基础,旅游是世界自然遗产利用的重要途径,在这一情况复杂、旅游地质资...更多源极为突出、遗产利用与保护矛盾较为集中的地区,旅游地质问题的研究十分重要而紧迫,不但有助于推动旅游地质学这一新兴学科的建设,而且对于遗产保护、促进遗产地人地关系协调、构建遗产地和谐社会等具有十分重要的现实意义。然而,目前国内外有关旅游地质问题的研究仍处在众说纷纭的阶段或旅游地质学这一新学科建立的前范式阶段,可资借鉴的理论与实践经验都极为有限。作为在“世界自然遗产保护中的旅游地质问题”这一新领域的探索性研究,本文在野外考察和前人研究工作的基础上,以旅游地质资源的调研、评价、利用与保护为主线,运用多学科交叉的研究方法,较为系统的研究了旅游地质资源的类型、分布与评价、旅游地质资源环境的脆弱性、旅游地质资源可持续利用等“三江并流”自然遗产利用与保护中目前最为紧迫的一系列旅游地质问题,具体如下:1、论证了三江并流世界自然遗产保护中旅游地质问题研究的重要性及紧迫性,明确了三江并流旅游地质问题研究的要点。1)对三江并流世界自然遗产状况进行了总体分析,归纳出五个特征:同时符合全部4项标准的世界自然遗产地;“香格里拉”的核心区域;矿产资源、水能资源、生物资源、旅游资源、民族文化资源等多重资源富集区;生态环境、地质环境、民族文化等多重脆弱区;全国最为贫困的区域之一。2)分析了三江并流世界自然遗产利用与保护中的主要矛盾:当地居民生存发展与遗产保护的矛盾;国家发展战略实施与遗产保护的矛盾;资金、技术、人才的极度匮乏与遗产保护的高要求之间的矛盾。3)论证了地质遗迹及地质环境是三江并流世界自然遗产保护的关键,提出并初步论证了遗产旅游是协调该区主要矛盾,实现世界自然遗产可持续利用的重要途径这一观点。4)明确了三江并流世界自然遗产保护中的主要旅游地质问题,即旅游地质资源的类型、分布、价值等问题,旅游地质资源环境脆弱性问题,旅游地质资源可持续利用问题。2、对“三江并流”旅游地质资源的类型、空间分布、价值与开发利用评价等进行了系统研究:1)分析、归纳了“三江并流”地质环境的总体特征:条状高山纵谷南北向紧密并列;地形地貌复杂多样;深大断裂密集;新构造运动十分活跃;地质演化历程极为复杂等。这一背景对于该区旅游地质资源形成、演化及旅游地质资源环境脆弱性起着决定性的作用;2)对该区旅游地质资源类型进行了较深入的研究,并对各种类型旅游地质资源的特点进行了归纳总结;3)根据三江并流世界自然遗产地主要地貌单元、旅游地质资源的空间组合特征和主要成景地质作用,采用旅游地质资源景观带、景观区、景观群和景观点这一系列观点,将研究区划分为4大景观带、15个景观区、37个景观群和100余个景观点;并对每个旅游地质资源景观区的地质成景作用和景观特色进行了分析和探讨。4)从整体上总结了三江并流旅游地质资源的空间分布特征。5)对世界自然遗产中旅游地质资源“价值”的含义进行了分析,探讨了三江并流世界自然遗产地旅游地质资源的科学价值、美学价值、文化与社会价值及经济价值。6)在旅游地质景观区层次对“三江并流”15个景观区旅游利用价值进行了对比评价。评价结论显示,各景观区得分较接近,均在6-8分左右,这主要是由于各景观区自身价值、对遗产贡献度、环境氛围等条件相差不大所致。相比之下,旅游利用价值极高的有小中旬景观区、香格里拉景观区、老君山景观区、梅里雪山景观区、维西景观区等。3、对三江并流旅游地质资源环境脆弱性问题进行了较深入的探讨:1)“三江并流”旅游地质环境脆弱性主要表现在4个方面:地质灾害频发;冰川退缩,雪线上升;岩漠化、荒漠化趋势严重;湖泊收缩;生态环境稳定性差。2)造成其脆弱的原因主要是新构造运动活跃、人口贫困压力巨大。此外,地貌、岩性、土壤、全球气候变化等也是重要的影响因素。3)根据其主导成因,进一步划分为人类活动胁迫主导型脆弱、气候变化胁迫型脆弱、结构型脆弱和综合型脆弱等旅游地质资源环境脆弱类型,初步查明了各类型的分布区域并绘制了类型分布图。4)分析了旅游地质资源环境脆弱对旅游资源利用的影响,主要体现在:对景区旅游利用规模构成限制,环境容量小,大部分区域不适合大众旅游;对旅游活动构成限制,破坏性强的旅游活动不能开展,部分区域游客不能进入;旅游设施建设受到限制;旅游安全保障形式严峻;资源环境保护保护任务重大等等。4、对“三江并流”旅游地质资源可持续利用问题展开了深入探讨。1)在对涉及该区国家地质公园、自然保护区、世界自然遗产、世界生物圈保护区、国家风景名胜区等旅游地质资源利用与保护现状与问题等进行分析的基础上,提出了旅游地质资源保护的“遗产原真性与完整性”、“尊重科学”、“可持续发展”、“人文关怀与人地关系协调”、“地质科学服务社会”等理念,以及旅游地质资源保护的环境目标、经济目标和社会目标;提出了建立生态特区,以世界自然遗产为主线整合自然保护区、地质公园、生物圈保护区、“大香格里拉”生态旅游区等利用与保护方式,促进旅游地质资源可持续利用的基本策略。2)提出并论证了遗产展示是遗产价值实现的重要途径这一观点。探讨了“遗产展示”的涵义,认为:“遗产展示”实际上就是根据遗产教育和遗产地人地关系协调的需要,通过对遗产价值的揭示、表达与传播,使大众更方便的理解遗产价值,并增强对文化和自然遗产的赞赏和尊重的技术经济过程;其重点和目的主要在于其社会教育功能的发挥,与一般旅游资源开发更强调经济效益具有本质上的不同;还结合“三江并流”实际,构建了旅游地质资源展示的程序框架;3)结合“三江并流”旅游地质资源的价值,分别就其展示中存在的困难与解决途径进行了深入探讨,提出了一系列可行方案。4)对怒江大峡谷、白水台和虎跳峡等典型区域旅游地质资源及其环境保护进行了示范研究。5、基于旅游地质问题研究就三江并流世界自然遗产保护提出了7点建议:1)加强地质公园的申报与管理,促进地质科学知识旅游产品化;2)力促生态特区建设,促进多种保护与利用方式的整合;3)完善遗产保护法规,强化遗产的监控与管理;4)确保当地社区居民的利益,积极引导社区参与;5)优化人口空间分布,实施生态移民;6)积极争取各方面资金、技术、科研支持,积极筹措遗产保护基金;7)构建完善的遗产教育体系。本文从旅游学和地质学交叉的角度,综合运用自然科学与人文社会科学的相关研究方法,系统研究三江并流世界自然遗产保护中的旅游地质问题,为世界自然遗产保护提供了新的研究思路和依据,并为旅游地质学的建立与发展拓展了新的领域,从而有所创新:(1)拓展了世界自然遗产保护中的旅游地质问题这一旅游地质学研究新领域,为遗产保护提供了新的思路与途径,并在一定程度上丰富与完善了旅游地质学的理论与方法。(2)较为系统地研究了“三江并流”旅游地质问题。在对旅游地质资源的类型、分布、特征及其价值,旅游地质环境脆弱性的表征及成因等进行深入分析的基础上,提出了旅游地质资源可持续利用的理念、目标、总体策略和具体途径,对三江并流世界自然遗产利用与保护具有指导意义和实践价值,并为其它世界自然遗产保护提供借鉴和参考。(3)提出了遗产展示是世界自然遗产价值实现及遗产地建设与管理的重要途径这一观点,对“遗产展示”的涵义进行了较深入的阐释,明确了遗产展示与一般旅游资源开发的区别,构建了“三江并流”旅游地质景观展示的程序框架。(4)系统地提出了同一地域多种类型保护区的协调思想,探讨了“三江并流”自然保护区、自然遗产、生物圈保护区、地质公园、大香格里拉等多种利用与保护方式的整合途径,阐述了建立“三江并流”生态特区的构想。  还原

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5Qpy.m3o I i8Pi&o0【英文摘要】 The Problems of Tourism and, Geological is a new area which contains both tourism and geology. Specifically, I explore this area on how to turn geological relics into scenic spots and then seek some ways to make the best use of it and protect them well which includes problem such as investigation and research, utilization and protection of geological resources, as well as a harmonious development model between the human and the environment during the course of utilization. As we know, tourist-geological problem is interdisciplinary science of geology and tourism, the core of the theory and methods of tourism geology. This research will surely promote the establishment and development of the new and modern science, which will play an important role in the development of tourism industry."Three Parallel Rivers" is China' s largest area of world natural heritage at present, which accords with all the four standards of it. It consists of the main part of the top of Yunnan and the famous br...更多and of Singarila of Yunnan tourist destination. At the same time it' s also one of the poorest areas in China which lies on the edge of Indian Plate and Eurasian Plate where the interaction is very active. Prominent diversity of biology scenery and cultures make it the key and popular research field of Paleo-Tethy evolution history, global changes, diversity of biology, ethnical cultures and national economy, etc at home and abroad.The protection of World Natural Heritage in "Three Parallel Rivers " is not only the fundamental requirement of Convention Concerning the Protection of the World Cultural and Natural Heritage , but also relates to the ecological safety of Yangtze River valley, Nujiang River valley , Lancang River valley and Dulong River valley, and to the international ecological safety. Eco-geological environment is the base of the protection of the World Heritage and tourism is an important way of utilizing it. Under the intricate conditions and the rich resources, the utilizing of the protecting the World Heritage, the research on the urgent geological and tourism issues, it is helpful not only to establish the new and modern science concerning geology and tourism but also have important effects on the protection of the World Heritage, the promotion of harmonious development between the human and the environment and construct a harmonious society in the World Heritage areas. However, the researches on this in China are still uncertainty, and few examples or theories can be used for reference.As an exploratory research on the issue of tourism and geology of the protection of the World Natural Heritage, this thesis is based on the field study and previous researches of the forerunners, mainly related to the researches and investigations, evolution, utilization and protection of geological and tourism resources. I study it by applying interdisciplinary methods, to studying the types, distribution and evaluation of geological resources , the vulnerability of geological environment, and sustainable utilization of geological and tourism resources, which is the urgent problem of the utilization and protection of the World Natural Heritage of Three Parallel Rivers at present. The following are more details.I . I demonstrate the importance and urgency of the researches of Tourist-Geological Problems in the protection of the World Natural Heritage of Three Parallel Rivers, and clarified the key points of the study of Three Parallel Rivers. Firstly, I analyze the general features of the World Natural Heritage of Three Parallel Rivers and conclude five features—-The World Natural Heritage suiting to all four standards at the same time; the core areas of Singarila; the area full of the mineral, water, biological, tourism, ethnical and cultural resources and so forth; areas of vulnerable ecological environment, geological environment and ethnical culture; one of the poorest areas in China. Secondly, I analyze the main contradictions of the World Natural Heritage of Three Parallel Rivers which include the contradiction between the local people's existence and development and the protection of the heritage; the contradiction carrying out of China' s development strategy and the protection of the heritage; the contradiction between the extreme lack of fund , technology and intelligence resources and high demands of the protection of the heritage. Thirdly, geological relics and environment is the key to the World Natural Heritage of Three Parallel Rivers and advance and illustrate that the tourism of the heritage is an important way of coordinating this area' s contradictions, and carrying out the sustainable utilization of the World Natural Heritages. Fourthly, I clarify the main problem of tourism and geology in the World Natural Heritage of Three Parallel Rivers. That is, the types, the distribution, the value, the vulnerability, the sustainable use of tourism and geological resources.II. I study systematically the types, the distribution, the value, the evaluation of tourist geological resources in Three Parallel Rivers" : Firstly, I analyze and induce the general features of the geological environment of ThreeParallel Rivers-strip - shaped mountains and valleys standing side by side;complex topography; deep, large and dense fractures; tectonic active movement; very complex procedure of the evolution of the geology. This background plays an essential role in the formation of this area' s tourist geological resources, the evolution as well as the vulnerability of it. Secondly, I do an intensive research on the tourist geological resources and induce all kinds of features. Thirdly, according to the unit of its topography of the World Natural Heritage of Three Parallel Rivers, the features of the space combination and geological interaction of ready made landscapes, by applying the view of series of scenic belt, scenic areas, scenic spot of tourist geological resources, I divide it into 4 scenic belts, 15 scenic areas, 37 scenic clusters and explore the geological scene forming action of each tourism scenic area and the special features of the scenes . Fourthly, I summarize the space distribution features of the tourist geological resources of Three Parallel Rivers. Fifthly, I analyze the value of tourist geological resources of the World Heritage, and explore its scientific, aesthetic, cultural, social and economic value. Sixthly I compare and evaluate the tourism use of the 15 scenic areas in Three Parallel Rivers in the level of tourist geological scenic areas The results show that . each area gets almost the same score between 6 and 8, resulting from few differences between their own value, their contributions to the heritage and their environment, comparatively, those better scenic spots include Xiaozhongdian scenic Area, Singarila Scenic area, Lao Jun Mountain Scenic Area, Meili Mountain Scenic Area, Weixi Scenic Area and so on.III. I makes a more intensive investigation on the vulnerability of the World Natural Heritage of Three Parallel Rivers. Firstly, its vulnerability mainly focuses the aspects: frequent geological disasters, the degradation of the glacier, and increasing tendency to rocky desertification and desertification; the shrinkage of the Lakes and changeable ecological environment. Secondly, the courses for its vulnerability are the active tectonic movement, the huge pressure of the population and poverty there, topography, lithology, soil and global climate changes as well. Thirdly, according to its essential courses, I divides it into several types: vulnerability mainly caused by the effects of the human actively; vulnerability in structure and comprehensive vulnerability etc, and observes and verifies preliminarily the distribution of different type of vulnerability and draw their charts and diagrams. Fourthly the author analyzes the influence of its vulnerability on the includes utilization of the tourism resources, which includes: its limitation on the utilization scale of scenic areas, small environmental capacity; most areas not suiting massive tourists; limitation on tourism activities; unable to carry out destructive tourism activities; on admittance to some areas; the infrastructures of tourism being restrained; the serious situation of the tourist safety; arduous tasks of protection of the resources and environment and so on.IV. This thesis is thoroughly focus on a deep exploration of the sustainable utilization of Three Parallel Rivers . Firstly, with the analysis of the national geo-parks, areas of the protection of the natural resources, the World Natural Heritage, the protection of MAB, the places of interest and so on, in the thesis I conclude some points of view of the protection of the tourism and geological resources: "the original and complete heritage" , "the value of the science" ,"the sustainable development" , "the harmonious relationship between the human and the nature" , "the science of geology for the society " and so on. I also conclude the environmental, economic and social aims of the protection of the tourism and geological resources, the ways of the protection and use by constructing special ecological areas, integrating the world natural heritage with the areas of protecting the nature, the geological parks , the areas of protecting, MAB, the "big Singarila eco-tourism areas" etc., and the strategies of the promoting of the sustainable use of the tourist geological resources. Secondly, I offer a point of view that the show of the heritage is a way to its value and explore. The meaning of the show of the heritage "which is the process of the strength of the appreciation and value in terms of the needs of the education to the people in the heritage and the harmonious relationship between the human and the nature, and in terms of the discovery, reflection and spread of the value of the heritage to offer the people an easy way to understanding it; the focus and purpose is on the educational function of the society which is different from the emphasis on the economic effects of the common tourism resources, and construct the system of the show of the tourism and geological resources. Thirdly, I offer a series of valuable approaches to the solutions to the problems in the show of the heritage. Fourthly, I do a model research on the protection of the big gorge of Nujiang River, Baishuitai scenic spot and Hutiao Gorge.V. I offer seven suggestions of The world natural heritage of Three Parallel Rivers in terms of the study of its tourist geological problems: 1) strengthen the declare and application to the geological parks and model the geological knowledge tourism brand; 2) Manage to construct special ecological areas and integrate a lot of protection with the ways of use; 3) Legislate the law of the heritage to strengthen the control and management; 4) Make sure to protect the benefits of the local people to lead them attending the protection and management; 5)Improve the space distribution of the people and carry out " the ecological emigration" ; 6) Manage to get the support of funds, technology and researches of the protection of the heritage; 7) Construct a good system of the education of the heritage.The thesis had tackled from the interdisciplinary angel of tourism and geology. The interrelated research approaches on natural science and social science be used to study the tourist geological problems of the World Natural Heritage of Three Parallel Rivers systemically, apply a new approach and foundation to the world natural heritage, widen and the protection of a new field for the shape and development of geological tourism.(1) Widen the new field of tourism geology which is the tourist geological problems of the protection of the World Natural Heritage, offering a new approach to the protection of the heritage, enriching and improving the theory and approaches to tourist geology to a certain degree.(2) Study the tourist geological problems of "Three Par

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&O ^N!eLS0allel River" more systematically. By analyzing the types, distribution, features and value of tourist geological resources, the features and factors of the vulnerability of the tourism and geological environment, provides the idea, aim, strategies and approaches of the sustainable use of the tourist geological resources which have the leading sense and practical value to the World Natural Heritage of Three Parallel Rivers and offer the use for reference to the protection of other natural heritage of the world.(3) Offer a point of view that the show of the heritage is an important approach to the use and the construction of the heritage area of the World Natural Heritage, demonstrate the meaning of "the show of the heritage" deeply, make the difference between "the show of the heritage" and the common tourism resources clearly, and construct a system of the tourist geological sight show of "Three Parallel Rivers" .(4) Propose the idea of coordination among variety of different protection in the same area systematically, explore an integration approach to the natural protection region, natural heritage, MAB, geological parks, "big Singrila Eco-tourism area " etc as well as their variety of the utilization and different approaches to protection, and demonstrate the conception of constructing the ecological area of "Three Parallel Rivers" .  还原

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【中文关键词】 三江并流; 旅游地质资源; 世界自然遗产; 保护对策水利论文5k(Z[e:_H d'TnF4l
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