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三峡水库水质污染及次级河流富营养化潜势研究 【作者】杨钢 【导师】鲜学福

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Kz{9P,V/}0三峡水库水质污染及次级河流富营养化潜势研究

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作者杨钢导师】鲜学福水利论文x {O+t.tR
【作者基本信息】重庆大学,采矿工程,2004年,博士

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wtZ}(J+Z}/d0【中文摘要】 水体富营养化问题已成为当今世界性的水污染治理难题,也是全球性的环境问题之一。湖泊(水库)作为陆地的生态系统,在生物地球化学循环和营养盐流动方面的重要作用已越来越受到人们的关注。从世界范围来看,在全球范围内30%~40%的湖泊和水库遭受了不同程度的富营养化的影响。目前,我国湖泊(水库)水质污染引起的富营养化问题十分突出,是困扰中国经济发展的主要环境问题之一。然而,随着经济的迅速发展,人口的过快增长,大量含有氮、磷营养物质的污水排入湖泊(水库),使得湖泊环境污染和水体富营养化的程度日趋严重。随着三峡水库的形成,三峡库区的水环境将由现在典型的河流水体转变为类似湖泊水体,水环境生态系统将发生根本的变化。三峡水库蓄水以后,三峡库区水质如何变化一直成为国内外广泛关注的问题。因此,研究三峡水库水质的发展变化趋势、预测未来发展的规律,加强管理,已经成为各方面十分关注的问题。本论文主要从以下几方面研究:(1)从地球的磷、氮循环入手,分析了过量氮、磷与水体富营养化之间的关系,并且考虑了光照、水温等物理因素对富营养化影响。(2)运用长江三峡工程生态与环境监测系统1996~2000年水质连续监测指标,对三峡库...更多区长江干流及其次级河流水质污染现状进行全面的、系统的评价。采用的方法有:单因子评价法、综合污染指数法、因子分析方法。(3)运用定量分析的方法探讨了三峡库区水体污染物的来源,包括工业废水、城市污水、生活垃圾、农田地表径流、船舶污染对三峡库区水质污染的影响。(4)三峡工程建成蓄水后,受淹耕地将遭到江水浸泡,积蓄在耕地上的有机污染物、N、P以及Cu、Cr等微量重金属将通过溶解、交换、扩散而迁移到江水中,增加江水中相应成份的含量。通过实验分析了三峡库区蓄水后受淹耕地污染物释放的情况。(5)在三峡库区次级河流水质现状分析的基础上,通过几条典型次级河流回水河段水质影响分析与研究,着重讨论了次级河流回水河段水质影响的变化范围和规律,以及三峡库区次级河流富营养化的趋势;对三峡库区次级河流龙溪河下游长寿湖富营养化进行了评价;运用水体富营养化模型对长江支流乌江富营养化进行了模拟计算。本论文获得的主要创新点:(1)创造性地应用多元统计方法,采用SPSS10.0软件,对三峡库区长江干流<WP=6>主要监测断面的主要污染物进行了因子分析,用来揭示了三峡库区水质指标之间的相互关系及联系。(2)三峡水库蓄水后,积蓄在耕地上的污染物将受到江水浸泡,这将成为三峡水库水质污染物的重要来源。通过实验创造性地模拟了在固~液平衡状态下,三峡水库成库后受淹耕地污染物释放的变化及规律。(3)基于包含浮游生物作用的一维水质生态数学模型,考虑到三峡水库成库后乌江水文、水力学的变化。首次采用QUAL-ⅡE模型对长江重要的次级河流乌江发生的富营养化进行了模型计算。  还原水利论文VZWl;jV]"M*E ^

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【英文摘要】 Eutrophication in the water body is one of the problems of global water pollution control and environmental management. As a kind of terrestrial ecosystems, lakes and/or reservoirs’ role in the geochemistrical and nutrient cycles becomes more and more significant. From the global perspective, about 30%40% of the lakes in the world are under the impacts of eutrophication at different levels. At present, the eutrophication impacts on water quality of lakes are prominent in China. And it becomes one of the environmental problems that block the economic development. With economic development and population growth, the pollutants containing N and P discharged into lakes and/or reservoirs will degrade water quality and make the eutrophication more serious than ever.After the Three Gorges Dam built up, the water environment of Yangtze River in the Three Gorges Area will be transformed from a typical stream body to a kind of lake body, and the water ecosystem will be also changed radically. T...更多he water quality development trend after the Three Gorges Dam built up has become one of the global attentions. Therefore, it is urgent and significant to study the water quality development trend. Many attentions has already been paid to the enforcement of management and predication of the water quality This research is conducted from following aspects:(1) The author analyzed the relationships between nitrogen cycle, phosphorus cycle and the eutrophication based on the analysis of nitrogen and phosphorus cycle, physical characteristics such as irradiation and water temperature.(2) Based on continuous water quality monitor data of ecological and environmental monitoring system of Three Gorges Reservoir from 1996 to 2000, the author considerably and systemically evaluated the present water pollution situation of main stream and tributaries of Yangtz River using methods such as single-factor evaluation and aggregative index evaluation.(3) Quantitatively analyzed the contribution of different water pollution sources including industrial wastewater, urban sewage, urban solid waste, runoff of farmland and marine vehicle pollution.(4) After the complet of Three Gorges Dam, the land submerged will release organic pollutants, N, P, and trace heavy metals such as Cu, Cr. Cumulated into water <WP=8>body through dissolving, exchanging, diffusing, and this will increase the concentration of those pollutants in the water body. The release of pollutants in the submerged land of Three Gorges Reservoir area is analyzed through related experiments.(5) Based on the analysis of the present situation of water quality in the tributaries, several typical tributaries are taken as examples. Both the rules and ranges of water quality variation and the trend of eutrophication in the tributaries are paid particular attention. Changshou Lake, which is located in the downstream of Longxi River (a tributary of Yangtze River), is carefully evaluated; and the eutrophication situation of Wujiang River, a tributary of Yangtze River, is modeled and simulated under the water body eutrophication model. Main innovations of this dissertation are:(1) By creatively applying multivariate statistical method firstly used and the SPSS10.0 adopted, the author analyzes the main pollutants of the monitor sectors of Yangtze River to study the relations between the water quality indicators of the Three Gorges Reservoir,(2) After the Three Gorges Dam built up, the arable land submerged under the water will become another pollution source of the Reservoir., Experiments and simulations under solid-liquid phase balanced stateless the law of the variation of the pollutants from the submerged arable land in the dam area are studied in the dissertation to deal with this problem.(3) Based on the one dimensional water quality ecological model with zooplankton function, and the hydrological and hydraulic variations of Wujiang River after the Three Gorges Dam built up, the QUAL-ⅡE model is first adopted to simulate the eutrophication of the secondary stream of Yangtze Ri  还原

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:U4s)ziO F7U r0【中文关键词】 三峡水库; 水质污染; 次级河流; 富营养化; 水质评价; 模拟预测水利论文E4P*|xE
【英文关键词】 Three Gorges Reservoir; water pollution; Water Quality Evaluation; simulation; Tributary; Eutrophication
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TAG: 河流 三峡水库 潜势 杨钢 水质污染
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