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含氮废水生物亚硝化与自养反亚硝化试验研究 【作者】魏琛 【导师】罗固源

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,\2E.Puu-KP9C0含氮废水生物亚硝化与自养反亚硝化试验研究

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kZ2j+~+V9{uR]0作者魏琛导师罗固源
5J:Fw]t:{;vl;S0【作者基本信息】重庆大学,环境工程,2004年,博士水利论文4MYh FFk

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3~ u-cS;\0【中文摘要】 目前含氮废水(特别是低C/N废水)生物脱氮处理所面临的最大问题是碳源不足,从而导致脱氮效果不佳。本论文所研究的生物亚硝化/自养反亚硝化脱氮工艺最大的优点正是在于“生物脱氮过程中不需碳源的加入”,这能节省能耗、反应器容积等,这些能极大地拓展生物脱氮工艺的应用范围、强化生物脱氮工艺的处理效果、简化处理流程、减少处理占地等,特别是对于低C/N比的废水而言,亚硝化/自养反亚硝化工艺的优势更为明显。本论文广泛研究了各类C/N均小于1、甚至低至0.5以下的低、中、高氨氮浓度废水进行亚硝化处理的效果,综合比较了各种不同的处理工艺,得出了最佳工艺——ANIS工艺和运行条件;成功启动并稳定运行了自养反亚硝化系统,并将ANIS亚硝化工艺和自养反亚硝化工艺串连运行,取得了良好的脱氮效果。对亚硝化工艺和自养反亚硝化工艺的污泥相变化进行了仔细研究,得出各工艺稳定运行及污泥适应等阶段的特征污泥相。通过上述大量试验研究表明:(1)低C/N低浓度氨氮废水采用活性污泥法BR工艺,可实现稳定的生物亚硝化,但系统不能长期稳定。要建立稳定亚硝化系统必须保证污泥的更新率,寻求合适的污泥龄。(2)低浓度氨氮废水活性污泥法BR工艺...更多中亚硝化现象出现的根本原因是对温度、DO、pH、游离氨等环境因素的适应过程中亚硝酸菌逐渐赢得了生长或/和活性上的竞争优势,而硝酸菌处于相对劣势,导致亚硝化现象出现。(3)低浓度氨氮废水亚硝化系统稳定运行一段时间之后,硝酸菌能逐渐适应亚硝化条件,恢复活性,从而使污泥产生适应性,亚硝化现象消失。杆状絮体是其亚硝化效果良好的特征污泥相。(4)高浓度氨氮废水实现稳定亚硝化宜采用ANIS反应工艺(连续进水、间歇出水),反应器每周期进、出水量仅为其反应容积的一半。运行条件:温度 28300C;pH值 7.58.5;DO 0.71.4mg/l;HRT 0.75d;SRT 3d;T 12h;系统污泥负荷 0.111kgNH4+-N/kgMLSS?d。(5)高浓度ANIS亚硝化系统的水力停留时间为0.75天,污泥停留时间为3天能取得最佳的亚硝化效果,此时系统亚硝化率约75%、氨氮降解率约60%,而且系统可长期稳定运行,但亚硝化系统的SRT控制仍是一个很微妙和严格的问题。(6)高浓度氨氮废水亚硝化稳定期的特征污泥相为:杆状絮体,长度约0.251.6mm,宽约0.15mm;当污泥开始对亚硝化产生适应后杆状絮体逐渐变小、解体,直至分散成为很细碎的絮体。污泥开始适应时污泥相的一个典型特征为出现大量直径为0.010.03mm的圆核状物质,因此可以考虑以该种现象的出现作为亚硝化污泥开始产生适应的标志。(7)以好氧硝化污泥、厌氧污泥、花园土壤渗<WP=6>出液为接种污泥,经过长达114天的启动培养阶段(以污泥的内源反硝化过程为主),自养反亚硝化活性污泥法BR工艺能够成功实现并稳定运行。稳定运行的自养反亚硝化系统的降解率在15~33%、降解率在65~90%、降解率大多处于50%左右。(8)稳定运行的自养反亚硝化系统中去除的∶∶的比值大部分为1∶2.8~3.6∶0.2~1.8。系统去除的少于去除的,系统中除了存在厌氧氨氧化现象之外,还存在其它的不需外碳源参与的反亚硝化过程,如硝酸盐和亚硝酸盐的异化还原或氨氧化菌在缺氧条件下以氢为电子供体进行反硝化。(9)自养反亚硝化系统污泥呈絮状、絮体分散、形状不规则,存在一定数量的丝状菌。镜检可明显观察到污泥中夹杂有大量红色、深红色微粒,随着沉淀时间的延长,镜检污泥的红色物质能更大量的积聚,使污泥显得更红,这强有力地证明了自养反亚硝化系统中存在ANAMMOX微生物,而且发生了厌氧氨氧化反应。(10)亚硝化系统与自养反亚硝化系统串连运行,并以低浓度氨氮废水为进水时,总系统的去除效率为60%~72%,去除效率为35%~62%,系统的处理效果波动较大,但就处理效果来看,系统对含氮污染物能起到很好的去除效果。  还原

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【英文摘要】 At present, the key of the treatment of nitric wastewater(especial low C/N wastewater) is the lack of silicon source, so the effect of nitrogen removal is not very good. The best advantage of the biological nitrous nitrifying/ Autotrophic denitrifying in this dissertation is that no silicon source is needed in the process of biological nitrogen removal, this can save energy and reactor volume、simplify treatment process、reduce occupied aerea, especially the low C/N wastewater.In this dissertation, the effect of nitrous nitrifying of various low、middle、high concentration nitric wastewater with low C/N, such as C/N is less than 1 to 0.5. After comparison of various process, a optimum process—ANIS process can be drawn; A autotrophic denitrifying process is successfully started up and stable operated; ANIS nitrous nitrifying process and autotrophic denitrifying process are joining-up in series to operate, and sound nitrogen removal effect can be achieved. The activated sludge in nitrous nit...更多rifying process and autotrophic denitrifying process are fully studied, and the characteristics of these processes in stable and acclimation stage have been drawed.Through a number of foregoing research, we can get that: (1)BR activated sludge nitrous nitrification system with low C/N low nitrogen concentration nitric wastewater can realize biological nitrous nitrifying, but it can not be long term stable. The renewal rate of sludge and suitable SRT is the key of stable nitrous nitrifying system. (2)The fundamental reason of nitrite accumulation in low concentration BR activated sludge nitrous nitrification system is that nitrogen oxidation bacteria compete out nitrite oxidation bacteria during the process of adapt to temperature、DO、pH、FA. (3)Nitrobacter can gradually acclimate to nitrous nitrifying conditions and refreshed, so the sludge should acclimation and the nitrite accumulation disappear. The bacillar flocculation is its typical characteristic. (4)High concentration nitric wastewater can realize stable nitrous nitrification by ANIS process(continually influence、intermittently decantation ), the influence and decant volume of the reactor is only half of its volume. The operation conditions is: temperature 28300C; pH 7.58.5; DO 0.71.4mg/l; HRT 0.75d; SRT 3d; T 12h; reactor sludge load 0.111kgNH4+-N/kgMLSS?d. (5)When the HRT、SRT of ANIS system is 0.75d、3d can realize optimum nitrous nitrifying effect, and the ammonia nitrogen degradation and nitrifying rate is about 60% and 75%, and it can be long term stable, so the control of SRT is key. (6)The characteristics of the stable <WP=8>stage sludge of high concentration nitric wastewater nitrous nitrifying system is bacillar flocculation, long is about 0.251.6mm, width is about 0.15mm; When the sludge begin to acclimate to the nitrous nitrifying conditions, bacillar flocculation gradually dwindle and decomposition, still disperse into little flocculation. The typical characteristics of the sludge begin to acclimate is the appearance of a large number of round cores which diameter is 0.010.03mm, this can be reckoned as the marking of sludge acclimation. (7)The activated sludge autotrophic denitrifying BR process can realize stable operation after start-up and cultivation (mainly is endogenous denitrifying process) for 114d and the aerobic nitrifying sludge、anaerobic sludge、garden soil transudate as the inoculation sludge. The nitrogen ammonia nitrite and nitrate degradation rate of stable operation autotrophic denitrifying process are about 15~33%、65~90% and 50%. (8)In stable operation autotrophic denitrifying process, the main ratio of ∶∶ is 1∶2.8~3.6∶0.2~1.8. The removal of  in the system is less than , it indicates that not only anaerobic ammonium oxidation process, but also other denitrifying process which not need extra silicon source in autotrophic denitrifying process. (9)The sludge of autotrophic denitrifying process is flocculent、dispersal、irregularity-shape, existing a number of sphaerotilus. Through microscope, the sludge exists a larg  还原

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Msd q[-l0【中文关键词】 生物脱氮; 亚硝化; 自养反亚硝化; 废水处理; 活性污泥法
n;JE4K-e)A:r0【英文关键词】 Biological nitrogen removal; nitrous nitrifying; Autotrophic denitrifying; Wastewater treatment; Activated Sludge System水利论文O3z^\HH
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TAG: 导师 废水 罗固源 魏琛 硝化
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