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贮存饮用水水质及其影响因素研究 【作者】马颖 【导师】龙腾锐

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7}J c \uV@4K0贮存饮用水水质及其影响因素研究

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_+|+}"Xi0作者马颖导师龙腾锐水利论文F9d`,F ? a&_7?
【作者基本信息】重庆大学,市政工程,2004年,博士

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5^;a6~3H$q@N/H0【中文摘要】 论文研究贮存饮用水的水质问题。首先,建立了饮用水大肠杆菌现代分子生物学检测方法。然后,对影响贮存饮用水水质的两个重要因素-营养物质(以生物可同化有机碳为标准)和贮水材质进行了详细研究。最后,对大中型贮水构筑物内贮存水的水质变化规律和水质特征进行了探讨,提出了贮水工艺。主要的研究成果如下:1. 建立了饮用水大肠杆菌的聚合酶链式反应(PCR)检测方法。PCR法检测大肠杆菌的引物为:上游引物:5’- tgt tca gtg gca aga gtt – 3’下游引物:5’- taa tcg ata tac ccg ctc – 3’ 该引物对埃希氏大肠杆菌具有良好的特异性。应用PCR法检测饮用水中的大肠杆菌,检测时间短,只需(4~5)h左右;检测灵敏度高,可以检测到1~10个大肠杆菌/mL水样。适用于检测氯剂消毒和臭氧消毒的饮用水。2. 对各种贮存饮用水的水质生物稳定性进行了研究,建立了贮存饮用水AOC-T生物稳定性评价指标体系。该评价体系对评价水质均匀贮存饮用水的生物稳定性具有重要的参考价值。3. 二次管网贮水构筑物中的自来水在贮存过程中,AOC值普遍升高。其中,AOC-NOX升高的量远远高于...更多AOC-P17的升高量。饮用水在贮存过程中从贮水构筑物材质中溶出的有机物以及消毒过程中的消毒副产物对螺旋菌NOX的生长更为有利,而P17菌对这些有机物的利用则非常有限。4. 贮存饮用水中的微生物对余氯较为敏感,通过实验室试验和对生活中贮存饮用水的分析表明:为保证贮存饮用水的生物稳定性,贮存饮用水中的余氯宜保持在0.02mg/L以上。5. 贮水构筑物的材质对贮存水水质影响较大。对于混凝土、玻璃钢、不锈钢和陶瓷等四种贮水材质,混凝土最有利于微生物的生长繁殖,玻璃钢次之,不锈钢和陶瓷都不利于微生物的生长。对余氯衰减系数的排列顺序为:k混凝土>k玻璃钢>k不锈钢>k陶瓷。6. 对玻璃钢在贮水过程中溶出的有机物进行了研究。食品级玻璃钢经过饮用水的长期浸泡溶出的有机物种类较少,其中没有属于严格控制的有机物。而且,与不锈钢和陶瓷相比,玻璃钢价格便宜,易于施工。因此,食品级玻璃钢是比较理想的贮水构筑物的材料。7. 饮用水在长期贮存过程中,水质会出现不同程度的恶化。微生物的生长繁殖<WP=6>是引起贮存水水质恶化的根本原因。对于大中型贮水构筑物而言,不同部位水体的水质差别很大。主体水水质良好,周边水水质较差。贮存水水质恶化是一个从周边水水体向主体水水体恶化的过程。8. 开发了大中型贮存构筑物饮用水贮存工艺,将食品级玻璃钢贴附于贮水构筑物的内表面,采用氯剂对周边水重点消毒,尽量不扰动主体水。该工艺经过应用性试验研究,简单适用、操作简便,贮水效果良好,贮水费用约为原来的1/2。论文绝大部分研究内容属国内首次进行,其中部分内容也未见国外文献报道,因此本研究有较好的理论意义和实用价值。  还原水利论文,jY0K C-gT)^x'L

Z)VJ_Q~,X:}0【英文摘要】 The reserving water qualities are studied in the dissertation. First, coliform test method of using modern molecule biology is established. And then, two important factors which influence water quality - nutrition in water (according to Assimilable Organic Carbon, AOC) and materials of water tanks are studied in detail. At last, the variational rules and characteristics of reserving water quality are studied. The process of reserving water is put forward. Based on the research, the conclusions are as followed:1. The method of detecting coliform using Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) is established. The primer of the method is as followed:Up primer: 5’- tgt tca gtg gca aga gtt – 3’Down primer:5’- taa tcg ata tac ccg ctc – 3’ The primers possess very good performance to E.coli. If coliform existed in water are detected by PCR, the time needed would be very less and only around 4~5h. The method is more sensitive to coliform than cultivate method, and it is able to detect E.coli of 1~10ng/m...更多L in water sample. It is applicable to drinking water that is disinfected by chlorine and ozone. 2. Various of water’s biology stability was studied, and the assessment index of AOC-T was established. It was suitable to assess biological stability of water which quality was uniform.3. For the reserving water of municipal water supply, AOC may increase generally. Its amounts of AOC-NOX would be more greatly than the amounts of AOC-P17. The organics of drinking water dissolved from water tank’s material and DBPs would be more beneficial to NOX than P17.4. The microorganisms are very sensitive to chlorine residual. Scale examination and analyses of various reserving water samples show that 0.02mg/L chlorine residual should be attained to make the reserving water biology stability. 5. Material of water tanks can have significant influence on water quality. For the four kinds of materials name as concrete, fiberglass, stainless steel and ceramic, concrete is more suitable to microbial propagation, then fiberglass, stainless steel and ceramic are not benefit to microbe. Attenuation coefficient of chlorine residual are:k concrete>k fiberglass>k stainless steel>k ceramic. <WP=8>6. Organics dissolved from deli.-grade fiberglass water tanks were studied. The kinds of dissolved organic was very rare, and there was no organic to be controlled strictly in them. Furthermore, cost of deli.-grade fiber glass was fewer than that of stainless steel and ceramic, and it is to be built easily. So deli.-grade fiber glass is better than others.7. Drinking water would be deteriorated if it is stored for long time, and microbial propagation attribute to it. According to the vast reserving water, the water quality is varied within different zones of water tank. The water is deteriorated firstly at around of the surface, bottom and the wall, and the center water quality is very good. The water would be deteriorated from peripherals to center.8. The process of vast reserving water was developed. Deli.-grade fiber glass was lined on the inner surface of concrete water tank and chlorine was used as disinfectant mainly to the reserving water of peripherals zone. Experiment results show that the process is simple, appropriate and convenient, and the cost is only 1/2 of the former.Most of the research was done for the first time in China and some points was firstly present in whole world. The results, which are important both in theory and application, have showed great prospect in water quality improvement.Maying (Municipal Engineering)Directed by Professor Long Tengrui  还原水利论文 T2kp]rC v

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【中文关键词】 贮存水; 水质; PCR; 生物稳定性; 材质; 贮水工艺水利论文8G0j/])O}:@"@V,|[
【英文关键词】 Reserving Water; Water Quality; PCR; Biology Stability; Material; Process
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TAG: 龙腾锐 水质 饮用水 影响因素 马颖
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