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城镇有机垃圾水解及其水解液厌氧消化工艺与性能研究 【作者】刘国涛 【导师】龙腾…

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^ Lg6D:q(k6m0城镇有机垃圾水解及其水解液厌氧消化工艺性能研究

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&q!Q9Y'}#Tk0作者刘国涛导师龙腾锐; 彭绪亚
vlm w6E`\0【作者基本信息】重庆大学,市政工程,2007年,博士水利论文`~1s&w7cz

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xM/HLwm0【中文摘要】 城镇有机垃圾厌氧消化过程存在着均质困难、水解过程缓慢、发酵后沼液及沼渣难处置、高固体含量厌氧消化的酸抑制和氨抑制等问题。针对这些问题,论文进行了批式水解——UASB组合工艺处理有机垃圾的研究,开展了有机垃圾水解、UASB反应器处理有机垃圾水解液、批式水解——UASB组合工艺处理有机垃圾的工艺参数与效果、微量金属离子对UASB反应器处理有机垃圾水解液的促进作用等研究,得到了以下主要结果。①比较了厌氧淋滤、厌氧浸泡、厌氧浸泡与兼氧交替、厌氧浸泡与好氧交替以及UASB出水厌氧浸泡等方式对有机垃圾水解效果的影响,结果表明采用UASB出水浸泡方式是最佳的。得出的有机垃圾批式水解工艺参数是:水解时间为7~8d;稀释率为0.30~0.7d-1;液固比为5~8;接触时间第1d为6h,1d后为24h。②水解速率与其表面积有关,在传统的一级模型中引入表面积项,对一级模型进行修正。修正的水解速率通式为:。其中片状颗粒n为1,圆柱形颗粒n为2,球形颗粒n为3。动力学模型试验研究结果表明,传统一级模型、圆柱颗粒模型和球形颗粒模型的水解速率常数分别为0.2492、0.5376和0.6740d-1。修正的一级水解...更多模型(球形颗粒模型或圆柱形颗粒模型)比传统的一级模型能较好地预测反应器中有机物浓度和出水总COD浓度。③研究探求了一种新的快速启动UASB反应器的方法,即增大初始接种污泥量(占反应器体积50%),采用较高的水力负荷,对反应器内的污泥进行选择;污泥适应水质后,逐渐增加有机负荷,维持较高的VFA浓度,对厌氧污泥的优势菌种进行选择。在水温为28~35℃时,38d内完成了UASB反应器的启动,使其容积负荷达到8.0kgCOD/(m3·d)左右,COD去除率稳定在80%以上。④UASB反应器处理高浓度有机垃水解液,当进水COD浓度为8113~12971mg/L,水力停留时间为21.5~28.5h,上升流速为10.6~18.2m/d,负荷为9~12kgCOD/(m3·d)时,COD去除率可以达到90%以上;出水VFA浓度为43~757mg/L,与进水相比,出水VFA浓度降低了,处理过程中没有出现VFA累积与酸抑制现象;出水氨氮从176mg/L增至约1900mg/L,与进水相比,出水氨氮浓度总体增加了,处理过程中没有出现氨氮抑制现象;单位容积产气量为2.03~5.31L/(L·d),单位COD产气量为0.21~0.53L/gCOD,沼气中甲烷含量为58.9%~83.7%。⑤批式水解——UASB组合工艺克服了传统的高固含率有机垃圾厌氧消化过程中VFA积累与氨抑制的问题。在约8d的时间内,处理后垃圾的挥发分为65.18%~77.60%,挥发分去除率为32.0%~56.9% ,COD溶出量为303.2~471.0gCOD/kgVS,有机垃圾产气量为91.0~235.5L/kgVS。⑥建立了批式水解——UASB组合工艺出水氨氮浓度计算模型,找出了氨氮累积的关键控制参数(回流比),为有效预防氨抑制提供了分析工具。建立了UASB反应器酸碱平衡与pH值关系式,为避免出现酸抑制提供了理论参考。⑦试验垃圾水解液厌氧消化Fe、Co、Ni的最优组合添加量为5.0、1.0、1.0mg/L。添加微量金属离子,提高了UASB反应器处理有机垃圾水解液的稳定性和处理效果,平均单位产气量和平均单位COD的气体转化率分别提高了21.5%和11.4%。⑧添加金属离子,并未改变反应器的菌群结构和优势菌种的类别,但在一定程度上提高了反应器中优势菌种的比例。微量金属离子对UASB处理有机垃圾水解液促进作用的可能机理是,促进了优势菌种微生物细胞的合成以及促进了微生物酶的合成和激活酶在生化反应中的催化作用。  还原水利论文*e-J-i$e+?

P3]#h$iIJ0【英文摘要】 There are several problems in the anaerobic digestion of municipal organic wastes, including homogeneous difficulty, hydrolysis slowness, and acid as well as ammonia restraints of high-solids content. To solve these problems, a combined batch hydrolysis- UASB process for the treatment of organic wastes was studied in this paper. Main researches were carried out on the hydrolysis of organic wastes, the treatment of the hydrolytic liquid by UASB, parameters and effects of the combined batch hydrolysis- UASB process for the organic waste treatment. Additionally, promotion effect of trace metal ions on the treatment of the hydrolytic liquid in UASB was also studied. Main research results were as follows.The hydrolytic effect of organic wastes was studied by the comparison among anaerobic leaching, anaerobic marination, anaerobic-anoxic marination, anaerobic-aerobic marination and effluent of UASB marination. The result shows the UASB effluent marination is the best way. The parameters of b...更多atch hydrolytic process include the hydrolytic time of 78d, the dilution rate of 0.300.70d-1, the solid-liquid ratio of 58, the contact time of 6h on 1st day, and 24h after 1st day.The hydrolytic rate is concerned with the surface area. The first-order hydrolysis model was modified by introducing the surface area to the traditional first-order model. The modified hydrolytic rate formula is . Where: n=1 (flat grain); n=2 (column grain); n=3 (global grain). The research on dynamics model shows that the hydrolytic rate constants of traditional first-order model, cylindrical model and spherical model are 0.2493, 0.5378 and 0.6741d-1, respectively. Compared with the traditional first-order model, the modified first-order hydrolytic model is a better way to forecast the concentration of organic substance in the reactor and effluent total COD.A novel quick start-up method of UASB was studied, that is, a high original quantity of inoculation sludge (50 % of the reactor volume), a relatively high hydraulic load, and the selection of sludge in the reactor. As sludge was adapted to water quality, the organic load gradually increased; the concentration of VFA was maintained at a high level, and dominant microbes in the anaerobic digestion sludge were selected. When the temperature ranged from 28℃to 35℃, the USAB reactor was successfully started up in 38d, the volume load arrived at 8.0kgCOD/(m3·d), and the removal rate was above 80%.When influent COD ranged from 8,113 to 12,971 mg/L in the UASB reactor, HRT was 21.528.5h; the upflow velocity was 10.618.2m/d and the load was 912 kgCOD/(m3·d), the removal rate of COD reached more than 90% and effluent VFA was 43757mg/L. Compared with influent VFA, effluent VFA concentration decreased and phenomenon of VFA accumulation as well as acid restraint did not appear. Compared with influent ammonia nitrogen, effluent ammonia nitrogen increased from 176mg/L to about 1,900mg/L, but phenomena of ammonia nitrogen restraint also did not appear. The gas production was 2.035.31L/(L·d), the gas production of unit COD was 0.210.53L/gCOD and the content of CH4 was 58.9%83.7%.The combined batch hydrolysis-UASB process can overcome disadvantages of VFA accumulation and ammonia restraint in the traditional anaerobic digestion of high-solids organic wastes. The volatile matter ranged from 65.18% to 77.60% in about 8 days; the removal rate of the volatile matter was 32.0%56.9%; the dissolve-out of COD was 303.2471.0gCOD/kgVS, and the gas production of organic waste was 91.0235.5L/kgVS.Calculation model of effluent ammonia nitrogen in the combined batch hydrolysis- UASB process was established. Key parameter (return ratio) on control was considered as an analysis tool to prevent ammonia restraint efficiently. Moreover, a relationship between acid-alkali balance and pH was set up in the UASB reactor as a theoretical preference to avoid acid restraint.The optimum quantities of Fe, Co, Ni combination were 5.0 mg/L, 1.0 mg/L, and 1.0 mg/L, respectively. The experiment shows that the addition of trace metal ions will enhance the treatment effect and stability of UASB reactor; the average gas production per unit and gas conversion per unit COD increased by 21.5% and 11.4%, respectively.The addition of metal ions did not lead to changes of microbial community structure and dominant microbial categories. It, to some extent, made the proportion of dominant microbes ascend in the reactor. Possible mechanisms of the addition to promote the treatment of hydrolytic liquid include the improvement of the synthesis of dominant microbial cells and enzymes, as well as the activation of the enzyme catalysis in the biological reaction.  还原水利论文Q |mzu0Zo s$R3s

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【中文关键词】 城镇有机垃圾; 厌氧消化; 水解; 动力学模型; UASB; 微量金属离子
g DCL'~5E0【英文关键词】 Organic Fraction of Municipal Solid Waste; Anaerobic Digestion; Hydrolysis; Dynamic Model; UASB; Trace Metal Ions水利论文uLJ |VJ

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TAG: 工艺 刘国涛 水解液 龙腾 厌氧
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