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海南省松涛水库流域固体废物污染物溶出规律及对水环境影响研究 【作者】岳建华 【导…

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作者岳建华导师】王里奥水利论文k8L U[2b5nM:m7Tu7]
【作者基本信息】重庆大学,环境工程,2007年,博士

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【中文摘要】 海南省松涛水库地处海南省中西部少数民族地区,是海南省最大的水库。水库集水面积1496 km2,总库容33.45亿m3。长期监测结果显示,松涛水库的水质总体保持在地表水Ⅱ类水平,但局部区域仍存在一定污染,水环境质量有进一步恶化的趋势,对海南省重要饮用水源水质造成较大威胁。近年来,随着流域经济的发展,流域内固体废物已经成为影响库区水质安全的主要污染源之一,到了不得不引起重视的地步。通过实地调查和典型采样分析发现:流域内的城镇和农场生活垃圾实现了集中收运堆放,但垃圾堆放点不规范,垃圾被焚烧,产生的污染影响了周围环境。农村生活垃圾没有集中收运,被随意丢弃堆放在村落中,造成部分垃圾被雨水径流带入水体。流域内城镇、农场和农村生活垃圾产量分别为0.74 kg·d-1、0.61 kg·d-1和0.16 kg·d-1,堆存生活垃圾量分别为5548 t、2495 t和2700 t,总计10743 t;生活垃圾中的有机组分分别为城镇75.61%、农场64.24%和农村82.28%。流域内生活垃圾平均回收率为10.15%,偏僻、交通不便的乡镇农村回收率远低于平均数。实验室理化分析表明:流域生活垃圾中的TN、T...更多P、TK含量基本满足国家生活垃圾农用控制标准;城镇生活垃圾中的Pb和Cd含量,农场生活垃圾的Cd含量稍高于国家生活垃圾农用标准;流域内生活垃圾中砷、汞、铬、镉、铅的含量均低于浸出毒性鉴别值。流域生活垃圾中不含有有害固体废弃物。松涛水库流域内的部分垃圾,通过地表径流直接进入水体,经水浸泡后,其中的污染物直接释放到水体中;堆存垃圾经过自然降雨冲淋后,其中的污染物淋出进入地下、地表水体。根据流域生活垃圾的分布特征,分别进行了典型生活垃圾静态浸出实验和生活垃圾动态淋溶实验。生活垃圾静态浸出实验表明:在换水实验方案中,室温对浸出液温度变化起着主要作用,对生活垃圾的污染物溶出速率有一定的影响,但影响不是很大。液固比对浸出液pH值和污染物溶出规律有显著影响。pH值对污染物的溶出规律也有显著影响。不换水实验方案中,室温对污染物溶出规律有一定的影响但影响不是很大,对浸出液pH值没有影响。pH值和液固比对生活垃圾中的主要污染物溶出规律有显著影响。根据理论经验和实验数据拟合结果,推导出了浸泡状态下的生活垃圾污染物溶出规律模型。根据筛选的污染物溶出速率方程,进一步计算出换水实验中CODcr、BOD5、TP、NH3-N、TN的溶出速率分别为882.24、325.88、14.95、16.20、40.78 mg·kg-1·d-1;不换水实验中CODcr、BOD5、TP、NH3-N、TN的溶出速率分别为320.39、242.21、2.26、40.02、39.75 mg·kg-1·d-1。动态淋溶实验表明:在非连续淋水实验中,垃圾厚度对生活垃圾渗滤液pH值和污染物淋溶规律没有显著影响。在连续淋水实验中,垃圾厚度对生活垃圾渗滤液pH值是有显著影响,但对污染物淋溶规律没有显著影响。对比两种实验方案,同一厚度垃圾,不同淋水方案对生活垃圾渗滤液pH值有影响,而对污染物淋溶规律没有显著影响。根据理论经验和实验数据拟合结果,推导出了堆存状态下,生活垃圾中污染物的淋溶规律模型。根据筛选的污染物淋溶速率方程,进一步计算出了动态淋溶实验中CODcr、BOD5、TP、NH3-N、TN的平均淋溶速率,分别为208.77、42.44、5.43、14.08、75.71 mg·kg-1·d-1。静态浸出实验和动态淋溶实验对比发现,两种实验方案生活垃圾中CODcr、BOD5、TP、TN溶出规律有显著差异,而NH3-N溶出规律没有显著差异。本文进一步采用一维水质模型,根据松涛水库的水文情况,所有降解系数取中等水平值,不考虑河床底泥的营养物质交换,用差分方法求解,预测了白沙县段内生活垃圾对水质的影响,发现模型可较好地反映污染物在水中的变化。生活垃圾对水质影响最大的污染物为COD。儋州段内生活垃圾主要为分散的农村垃圾,预测模型采用Dellen模型,预测因子为氮和磷元素。预测结果表明:生活垃圾会使水库中总氮、总磷的浓度分别增加0.00006mg·L-1和0.00003 mg·L-1,对照水库富营养化状况评价指标,虽然生活垃圾给水库带来的总磷贡献,使水库达到贫~中营养化程度还有一段距离,但生活垃圾已经成为水库中营养元素磷的重要来源。针对松涛水库流域的基础设施、经济情况、地形状况和固体废物现状,以及固体废物处理处置技术实践,提出了清理库区周边存量垃圾、建立科学完善的固体废物收运体系、集成的固体废物处理处置方法等流域固体废物污染防治对策。  还原

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【英文摘要】 Songtao reservoir locates in a minority area in the midwest of Hainan province. It is the biggest reservoir in Hainan, with the catchment area of 1496km2 and the total reservoir capacity of 3.345 billion m3. After a long term monitoring, it indicates that the water quality of Songtao reservoir is mainly kept on the standard II of surface water. However, there is some pollution in local region as well as an expanding of water pollution. All these mentioned above are making serious threats to the water quality of drinking water source. With the economic development in the reservoir, the MSW (Municipal Solid Waste) has already become one of the main pollutants that influenced the water quality safety. Attention should be attracted in such situation.By field survey and typical sample analysis, MSW in towns and farms implements the centralization of collecting-transporting-dumping. At the same time, the MSW dumping sites are not so normative that the pollutants influence the ambience, which...更多 is engendered by MSW incineration. The MSW of country is not centralized collected or transported but discarded and dumped in the villages randomly, while some is carried by the rainfall runoff. The MSW outputs of towns, farms and countries in the reservoir are 0.74 kg·d-1, 0.61 kg·d-1 and 0.16 kg·d-1. The dumping MSW outputs are 5548t, 2495t and 2700t, totally 10743t. The organic components of MSW in towns, farms and countries are 75.61%, 64.24% and 82.28%. The average recycle rate in the reservoir is 10.15% and a low recycle rate in remote districts and counties with inconvenient transportation.The physical-chemical analysis in lab indicates that the content of TN, TP and TK in MSW of the reservoir basically satisfies the National MSW Control Standard for Agriculture whereas the content of Pb and Cd in MSW of towns and Cd in MSW of farms are a bit higher than the standard. Moreover, the contents of As, Hg, Cr, Cd and Pb are all below the leaching toxicity identification evaluation and no harmful and toxic solid waste in the MSW of such reservoir.Part of MSW enters the waters by surface runoff. And then the pollutants release directly into the water after leaching. When the dumped MSW rushes by rainfall, the pollutants enter into the underground and surface waters. According to the distributional characteristics of MSW in such reservoir, the static leaching experiment of typical MSW and dynamic leaching experiment of MSW are carried through. The result of static leaching experiment indicates that temperature plays a key role to the temperature variety of leaching liquid and also influences the leaching velocity a little in the water-changing experiment scheme. Furthermore, liquid to solid ratio has a significant influence to the pH of leachate and leaching rules of pollutants, while pH is of significance to the leaching rules. In the no-water-changing experiment, temperature has just a bit influence of leaching rules and no influence to pH of the leachate. pH and liquid to solid ratio have a remarkable influence to the leaching rules.As to the result of theory and experimental data, we deduct the leaching rule model of MSW pollutants when dipping. Due to the leaching velocity equation of pollutants, the leaching velocities in the water-changing experiment of CODcr, BOD5, TP, NH3-N and TN are 882.24, 325.88, 14.95, 16.20 and 40.78 mg·kg-1·d-1 separately. While in the no-water-changing experiment, the velocities are 320.39, 242.21, 2.26, 40.02 and 39.75 mg·kg-1·d-1.The dynamic leaching experiment indicates that the MSW thickness has no significant influence to the pH of landfill leachate and leaching rules of pollutants. In the continuous tricking water experiment, the thickness plays a key role to the leachate pH but no influence to leaching rules. Compared with two experiment schemes, the same thickness and different leaching scheme influence pH of leachate while not significantly influence the leaching rules. At the same time, leachate pH and leaching rules of pollutants have no remarkable differences.As to the result of theory and experimental data, we deduct the leaching rule model of MSW pollutants when dumping. Due to the leaching velocity equation of pollutants, the average leaching velocities in the dynamic leaching experiment of CODcr, BOD5, TP, NH3-N and TN are 208.77, 42.44, 5.43, 14.08 and 75.71mg/kg.d separately. Compared with the static leaching experiment and dynamic leaching experiment, leaching rules of CODcr, BOD5, TP and TN are a totally different while NH3-N is not so.Based on the hydrologic conditions of Songtao Reservoir, we forecast the influence to water quality by the MSW in Baisha County. One dimension water quality model is used while all the degradation coefficients are the middling value in this process. And the difference method is used with no consideration of the nutriment exchange in the bed mud. We find that the model can reflect the pollutant variety in water practically and the most significant pollutants of water quality is COD.MSW in Danzhou region is mainly the dispersive countryside garbage that Dellen model is taking into forecast for N and P elements. The results indicate that the concentrations of TN and TP would reach 0.00006 mg·L-1,0.00003 mg·L-1 by the influence of MSW. Due to the eutrophication status assessment index, the reservoir will be from oligotrophication to mesotrophication by the influence of TP from MSW, which the significant source of P in the reservoir.Due to the infrastructure, economic conditions, terrain, solid waste situation and disposal technique practice of solid waste, the study indicates prevention and control methods of pollution in the reservoir, such as cleaning up the stocking solid waste around the reservoir, establishing a scientific and accomplished collecting and transporting system as well as integrated disposal methods of solid waste.  还原

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【中文关键词】 松涛水库流域; 固体废物; 污染物; 溶出规律; 水质模型
$vG b/Q.I`9m k0c dg0【英文关键词】 Songtao Reservoir; Solid Waste; Field Survey; Leaching rules of Pollutants; Water Quality Model
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TAG: 水环境 污染物 海南省 松涛 岳建华
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