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长江上游地区环境与经济协调发展研究 【作者】冉瑞平 【导师】王锡桐

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Y{%GrjqCd`W0长江上游地区环境与经济协调发展研究

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作者冉瑞平导师王锡桐水利论文(k(FO?[^x*v
【作者基本信息】西南农业大学,农业经济管理,2003年,博士水利论文7[!yp$~-^

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/I x.UVVxO!bR0【中文摘要】 作为我国重要水源涵养地和重要生态屏障的长江上游地区,长期以来,由于没有把环境保护与经济发展很好结合起来,导致了水土流失、荒漠化、耕地退化以及环境污染等生态环境问题,严重制约着区域经济发展,并成为未来三峡工程和南水北调工程安全运行,以及中下游地区可持续发展的最大威胁。研究长江上游地区环境与经济协调发展问题极具紧迫性和战略性。本文研究的切入点是界定环境与经济协调发展的相关基本概念及范畴,然后剖析环境经济学、资源经济学、生态经济学及可持续发展理论等相关理论,力图全面把握环境与经济发展的内在联系以及环境与经济发展失衡的内在机理,以此为基础,定性与定量相结合,综合评判长江上游地区环境与经济发展关系状况;在全面分析长江上游地区环境与经济发展失衡的原因基础上,结合国内外大河流域开发的经验和教训,设计出长江上游地区环境与经济协调发展的机制,探讨长江上游地区环境与经济协调发展的途径,研究长江上游地区重点区域实现环境与经济协调发展的对策措施。研究结果如下: 1.在现实生活中,环境保护问题和经济发展问题,无论是在人们的观念上,还是在实践中,都存在严重的“两张皮”现象,这是环境与经济发展失衡的重要原因。 2....更多环境与资源虽然有差异,但从对经济发展的作用来看,共同性是主要的,越来越多的学者更喜欢“环境资源”或“资源环境”这种提法。环境资源是有价值的,稀缺性是环境资源要素是否具有价值的根本标准,凡是稀缺的环境资源要素,我们都应认可其价值(或价格)特性,这对实现环境与经济协调发展至关重要。 3.环境与经济协调发展应包括彼此关联的三个方面:经济的发展,环境的发展,以及环境与经济发展的协调。环境与经济协调发展,是指环境系统、经济系统及各系统内部各要素间相互配合与协作而耦合成的良性循环态势,其现实标志是经济持续适度发展的同时,各环境功能区能保持相应的环境质量标准,生态环境能得到保护或不断改善。环境与经济协调发展是以环境资源承载力阈限值为限的发展,是环境与经济相互促进的共同发展,其特点是:阶段性、协调性、层次性、相对稳定性和绝对动态性。 4.长江上游地区环境与经济发展失衡。长江上游地区森林生态功能衰退,草地退化,水土流失,土地荒漠化,环境污染,自然灾害,以及生物多样性的破坏等生态环境问题,给区域造成严重的经济损失,同时进一步恶化区域环境,严重制约着长江上游地区经济发展。 5.导致长江上游地区环境与经济发展失衡的原因是复杂的,基础原因是长江上游地区环境的脆弱性;直接原因是社会经济发展中人们不合理开发利用自然资源,对区域自然环境的高强度干扰;深层次原因是由于观念、体制、制度、管理等方面的缺陷,导致长江上游地区环境与经济协调发展缺乏宏观背景,以及对区域环境系统与经济系统的协调不够。 6.提出了构建长江上游地区环境与经济协调发展的五大机制 机制的构建对实现长江上游地区环境与经济协调发展至关重要。这些机制包括: (1)环境与发展综合决策机制。其要舀是在决策中将环境保护和经济发展看作是两个同等重要的问题,进行综合考虑、综合平衡、科学决策,从政策源头上预防和控制环境问题的产生。该机制的构建应包括建立环境与发展综合决策的法律保障机制、部门协商机制、社会监督机制和信息反馈机制。 (2)协调发展激励机制。遵循正激励与负激励相结合、外激励与内激励相结合、物质激励与精神激励相结合三大原则,针对长江上游地区不同的行为主体在推动协调发展中充当的角色设计出了相应的激励制度。 (3)有保障的环保投人机制。构建该机制的基本思路是:畅通现有的环保投入渠道,拓展新的环保投人渠道,增加环保投入的供给;加强对环保投入资金、环保项目及工程的管理,提高环保投入资金的使用效果,压缩环保投入的需求。 (4)协调发展的公众参与机制。目前,公众的弱参与极不利于环境与经济的协调发展, 必须构建有利于协调发展的公众参与机制。具体办法有三:一是加强宣传、教育和培训,提 高公众协调发展意识,培养公众参与协调发展的能力;二是扩展公众参与的渠道;三是加强 一 立法与执法,为公众参与提供法律保障。 (5)协调发展的区际协作机制。环境系统与经济系统的跨区域特性,决定了构建协调发 展的区际协作机制的必要性和重要性。构建该机制,关键在于:一,彻底转变政府职能,政 企分开,淡化政府的“经济人”特性,根治地方割据和地方保护主义等不利于区际协作的社 会现象;二,建立或明确协作机构,避免管理混乱;三,开展内容丰富的区际协作。 7,提出了长江上游地区环境与经济协调发展的七条主要途径 O)转变经济增长方式。粗放型经济增长一方面造成有限资源的大量浪费;另一方面致 使大量的废弃物排入环境中,加剧了对生态环境的污染与破坏,成为长江上游地区环境与经 济发展失衡的重要根源。长江上游地区是欠发达地区,而且区内差异较大,转变经济增长方 式必须  还原水利论文{ P w E2a3A6v@HV

EI;r.N2tc1L}O0【英文摘要】 The upper reaches of Yangtze River (URYR) is one of important areas for conserving water and ecological defenses of our country, but there are such environmental problems as soil erosion, desert soil, degeneration of cultivated land, environmental contamination etc. The reason of causing these problems was that we had not combined environmental protection with economic development well. These problems will become the most serious threat against the safety of Three Gorge Project, Project of South Water to North, and sustainable development of middle and lower reaches of Yangtze River. So it is very urgent and strategic to study the coordinative development of environment and economy (CDEE) in URYR. The author starts the study with defining some basic concepts and categories, then some related theories of environmental economics, resource economics, ecological economics, and sustainable development are employed to analyze the interrelation between environmental protection and economic de...更多velopment, and inner mechanisms that cause the unbalance between environmental protection and economic development. Then the author judges the relationship between environmental protection and economic development in URYR by the methods of quantitative analysis and qualitative analysis. On the basis of analyzing the reasons that cause the unbalance between environmental protection and economic development in URYR, and using the experiences of or drawing lessons from the development of other large river basins at home and abroad, the author designs some mechanisms that urge the CDEE in URYR, then explores the channels of realizing the CEDD in URYR. Finally works out measures to realizing the CEDD of some important regions in URYR.The main conclusions of the study are listed as follows.1. In actual life, as far as problems of environmental protection and economic development are concerned, there is a serious social phenomenon of "two pieces of skin" which exists in people's ideas and their actions. This is the major reason that makes the unbalance between environmental protection and economic development.2. In view of the functions to economic development, environment and resources mainly have common properties, although there are many differences between them. More and more scholars like a term of "environmental resources" or "resources environment". Environmental resources are valuable. Scarcity of environmental resources is the basic standards, with which we can judge ifthey have value. We should affirm their value if environmental resources are scarce. This is very important for realizing CEDD.3. There are interrelated three aspects about the concept of the CDEE. They are economic development, environmental development, and coordination of such two aspects. This concept is defined as follows. The CDEE is a fine circle state which comes into being as environmental system, economic system and all factors of each system cooperate and couple with each other, and its realistic indicator is that while the economy keeps developing sustainably and suitably, the environmental quality of each function area should come up to its environmental quality standards, and ecological environment should be protected or improved gradually.The CDEE is a kind of limited development whose limited premise is the carrying capacity of environmental resources. Also CDEE is the joint development of environment and economy. CDEE has characteristics of stage, coordination, gradation, relative stability and absolute dynamic.4. We have unbalanced environmental protection and economic development in URYR. In URYR, there are many environmental problems such as decline of forests' ecological functions, degeneration of meadows, soil erosion, sandy desertification, environmental contamination, natural calamities, damages done to biodiversity, and so on. These environmental problems have caused enormous economic losses, worsened the environment, and restricted economic development in URYR.5. The reasons that environmental protectio  还原水利论文 S2ko.V L:z,\

GK'~ p)nb0【中文关键词】 协调发展; 机制; 长江上游地区水利论文:B7@%U#U | A!J+?$sav
【英文关键词】 coordinative development; mechanism; in upper reaches of Yangtze River
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