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紫色母岩现代表生作用及环境效应研究 【作者】骆东奇 【导师】谢德体; 魏朝富; 朱波

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+~)t]4ydQ(rmj0紫色母岩现代表生作用及环境效应研究

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作者骆东奇导师谢德体; 魏朝富; 朱波水利论文$GDw%K$r }OI
【作者基本信息】西南农业大学,农业资源利用,2003年,博士

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【中文摘要】 表生作用是在风化壳、陆地生物圈和水圈发生的岩石和矿物的地表变化,大气圈、水圈的组分在表生圈层中进行物质和能量的交换以及地球化学过程,而风化壳是联系地球岩石圈、水圈、生物圈、土壤圈和大气圈层的重要界面,是表生地貌学的重要研究内容。岩石风化成土是一个极其缓慢的过程,因而对岩石风化成土的表生作用研究存在较大的局限性。但紫色母岩因其风化成土快、母质肥力高、冲刷严重等特点而具有独特的科学魅力,并且其发育土壤表现出在颜色、物理性状、矿物组成等方面继承了母岩的特性,有“土壤学研究的一块宝地”的称誉。但是过去的研究大多集中在紫色母岩风化物理颗粒变化、风化破碎成土、营养肥力等的某一方面,缺乏从岩石→土壤→环境(生态)系统动态的角度研究紫色母岩的现代表生过程。 长江上游、四川盆地有着广泛的紫色岩石出露和紫色土分布,紫色母岩特殊的风化成土过程、紫色土的特殊性质,严重地影响着紫色岩石分布区环境的安全、经济和社会发展的可持续性。通过对紫色母岩现代表生作用特征及其影响研究,探明紫色母岩现代表生作用机理,预测其表生过程的环境风险,为长江三峡水环境及紫色岩区生态、经济和社会的可持续发展提供科学依据。从农业土壤、生态环...更多境和地质作用的角度,以岩石→土壤→环境(生态)系统整体研究为出发点,以四川盆地侏罗系蓬莱镇组(J3p)、遂宁组(J3s)、沙溪庙组(J2s)和三叠系飞仙关组(T1f)不同地层的4种紫色泥(页)岩及其发育的土壤为试验材料,采取模拟、动力学等试验方法,深入系统地研究了紫色母岩现代表生过程的五个方面:紫色母岩风化破碎、风化成土及养分释放特性和影响因素,紫色母岩和土壤养分释放对环境影响及预测分析,紫色母岩和土壤物理化学性质特征及变化规律,紫色母岩与有机物复合和紫色土有机质特征,利用方式和土壤管理对紫色土养分、水分、水保等综合肥力特征的影响。主要结果如下:l 紫色母岩风化成土特征 风化一年,盆钵模拟自然风化细颗粒比例为 2.25%~sl.70%,风化成土比例为 0.30%~6.18%;扰动两次紫色母岩风化细颗粒比例为4.72%~70.50%,风化成土比例为0石9%p4.84%;温度变幅(ZO℃)风化细颗粒比例为m.65 WW75.Zo%,风化成上比例为2.ic%~39.74%;水分处理(】2%)风化细颗粒比例为60.54W80.slO,风化成土比例为32.24%~42.34o;生物(小麦15株-高粱9株)风化细颗粒比例为16.23%~78.34%,风化成土比例为7.51%~43.94%。 不同风化条件对4种紫色母岩风化破碎为细颗粒的影响作用不同,T/母岩表现为温度变化>扰动>生物作用,人S母岩表现为生物作用>水分>温度变化>扰动,人S母岩表现为水分>温度变化>生物作用>扰动,方p母岩表现为水分>温度变化>扰动>生物作用。不同风化条件对四种紫色母岩风化成土影响不一致,Tlf母岩风化成土表现为温度变化>扰动>生物作用,JZS母岩表现为水分>温度变化>扰动>生物作用,J仔母岩表现为水分>温度变化>扰动>生物作用,J3p母岩表现为水分>温度变化>生物作用>扰动。 T;f、J。S、J。S、J。p 4种不同紫色母岩风化颗粒粒度分形维值为 0石0-3刀7。并且颗粒粒度分维值与<smm 颗粒比例关系为y一0.5763In(i+0.3854(*0.9873”“,n一24)对数函数,颗粒粒度分维值与<Zmm 成土比例关系为y一0.4308In00+!.4044(r=0.9741“”,n一24),颗粒粒度分维值与<smm细颗粒和<Zmm成土比例均表现为极显著对数关系,因此可以说用非线性表征值分形维可以较好地反映紫色母岩风化颗粒粒度的分布。颗粒粒度分维值能较好反映紫色母岩风化破碎程度及成土量的指标之一。2紫色母岩养分风化释放特征 不同风化处理飞仙关组母岩N、P、K释放量分另为23.09-92.799/m’、33.00一230.629/m’、1031.33、4356.469/m\增幅均表现为生物作用>温度变化>扰动。不同风化处理J/母岩 N、p、K养分释放量分别为 96.80-239.59g/m’、508.72~ill4.l!g/m’、13240刀l-28657.05g/m’,增赐分别表现为:生物作用>水分>温度变化>扰动,生物作用>温度变化>水分>扰动,生物作用>水分>温度变化>扰动。不同风化处理人S母岩 N、P、K养分释放量引.46-357刀og加3、115.13。576.92旮m\2928.65叫5867.20g/m\增幅分别表现为:生物作用>水分>温度变化>扰动,水分>生物作用>温度变化>扰动,水分>温度变化>生物作用>扰动。不同风化处理J刃母岩N、P、K养分释放量108.11-341.369/m‘、253.19-812.6ig/m’、6103.99-19821.38ym‘,增陨均表现为生物作用>水分>温度变化>扰动。从N、P、K养分释放分析表明,不同风化条件对四种紫色母岩N释放量影响均表现为生物作用>水分>温度变化>扰动,不同风化条件对四种紫色母岩P释放量影响均表现不一致,不同风化条件对四种紫色母岩K释放量影响除J扦母岩外,其它均表现为生物作用>水分>温度变化>扰动。除生物作用对遂宁组母岩P、K释放量增幅影  还原水利论文8yfMo1~0I!Sy

6?l9r*Tsh0【英文摘要】 Supergenesis is the earth's surface change of rock and mineral, which take place in weathering crust, earth biosphere and hydrosphere. The component of atmosphere and hydrosphere carries through material and energy exchange and geochemistry process. Weathering crust is the important interface, which connects with earth geosphere, hydrosphere, biosphere, pedosphere and atmosphere, and is also the important contents which supergenic physiognomy studies. Rock weathering and soil-formation is very slow process so supergenic study on rock weathering has great localization. Purple mother rock is provided with particular scientific charming, because it has the quality of the fast weathering soil-forming, the high contents of mother material fertility, severe wash and so on. And its development soil inherits the quality of mother rock for example the color, physical character, mineral compositions, etc. So purple soil is endowed with the praise - a famous soil scientific research sacred place....更多 But the most former studies focused on such a certain aspect as purple mother rock weathering physical particle size change, weathering fragmentation soil-forming, nutrient fertility and so on, and lacked study on the modern supergenic process of purple mother rock from the "rock- soil-environment (ecological)" systemic and dynamic angle.There are wide purple rock outcrop and purple soil distributing in the upper reaches region of the Yangtze River and Sichuan Basin. The particular weathering soil-forming process of the purple mother rock and the unique quality of the purple soil had great influence upon environmental safety, economic and social sustainable development in purple rock area. Study on the modern supergenic quality and influence of the purple mother rock proved up the modern supergenesis mechanism, forecasted supergenic process environmental risk and provided with scientific basis for ecological, economic and social sustainable development in water body environment of Three Gorges and purple rock area. From the angle of agricultural soil, ecological environment and geological action, and from a whole "rock→soil→environment(ecological) system study, by the experimental material of the Jjp, J3s, J2s and T]f purple mud rock or shale and its development soil, we used the experimental method of simulation, dynamics, etc. and thoroughly studied the five aspects of purple mother rock modern supergenic process. The first aspect was purple mother rock weathering smashes, weathering soil-forming, its nutrient release quality and influencing factors. The second aspect was that purple mother rock and soil nutrient affected environment and forecast analysis. The third aspectVIcontained the physical chemistry character and change laws of purple mother rock and soil. The fourth aspect involved the quality of purple mother rock-organic material and purple soil organic material. The fifth aspect was that utilization method and soil management exerted influence upon purple soil nutrient, moisture, and soil and water conversation synthetic fertility. The results showed that:1. Purple mother rock weathering soil-forming characteristicsThe result of pot simulation weathering showed that 2.25%51.7% of purple rock developed to small particles and 0.30%6.18% to soil after one year weathering. 4.72%70.50% of purple rock developed to small particles by disturbing twice and 0.69%24.84% to soil in one year. By the 20癈 change 10.65%75.20% of purple rock developed yearly to small particles and 2.10%39.74% to soil. 60.54%80.81% of purple rock developed to small particles and 32.24%42.34% to soil under 12% of moisture circumstances in one year. 16.23%-78.34% of purple rock developed to small particles and 7.51%43.94% to soil given biological circumstances (rotation of ISwheat plants and 9 jowar plants ) in one year.Different weathering circumstances had different influence upon small particles developed from four kinds of purple rock. The influencing sequences were: temperature change>disturbance >biological action i  还原水利论文 f9u[5qvm

wIP;bQr9tH0【中文关键词】 现代表生作用; 紫色母岩; 紫色土; 利用方式; 环境效应水利论文bjK f7s \%^
【英文关键词】 modern suppergenesis; purple mother rock; purple soil; environmental effect; utilization pattern
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