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原油碳源微生物提高原油采收率机理 【作者】景贵成 【导师】郭尚平; 俞理

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原油碳源微生物提高原油采收率机理水利论文wYt/Lhv

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作者景贵成导师郭尚平; 俞理
3B)a'Jh l,a0【作者基本信息】中国科学院研究生院(渗流流体力学研究所),流体力学,2005年,博士水利论文1W]KBV ~*v @ p6T

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Zv/y N g?+Z0【中文摘要】 本文应用可视化观测、微观物理模拟、微观数值模拟和数学物理方法,采用油田油水样品中分离得到的三种以原油为碳源的微生物(简称原油碳源微生物),研究了微生物及其代谢产物的局部富集机理、微生物化学趋向性运动机理、提高原油采收率微观机理、微生物化学趋向性系数估算方法和微生物渗流微观数值模拟方法。建议了一些方法,获得了一些规律性的认识。1.发现了原油碳源微生物以原油为碳源的化学趋向性运动,在营养盐水区域(碳 源扩散有效区)——简称水区内、离油水界面有一定距离的微生物初始时做 无规则的滚动,一段时间后就定向运移到油水界面。2.可视化实验表明,由于不断的运移和不停的繁殖,在微生物初始位置与油水 界面之间的范围内,广泛地分布着微生物菌体。其分布有明显的规律:(1) 存在菌浓梯度。经过一段时间后,从菌体初始位置至油水界面之间的菌浓 分布规律为从最小值单调地上升为最高值,亦即离油水界面越近则菌浓越 大,油水界面处菌浓最大。经过一定时间后,在任意位置处的菌浓都升至 该处的最高值,然后基本不再增长。(2) 微生物有争相进入原油——水——孔隙壁三者交界处富集的趋势,这有利 于细菌及其代谢产物发挥提高采收率的作用。...更多(3) 在有效的营养物浓度梯度范围内,细菌运移速度与距油水界面的距离无关, 与环境温度关系很大,存在最佳生长温度。在最佳生长温度下,细菌运移 速度最高。(4) 在微生物初始位置与油水界面之间的范围内,微生物的代谢产物的分布也 存在浓度梯度,油水界面处的代谢产物浓度最高。3.建立了一套估算原油碳源微生物化学趋向性系数的方法。算例表明:毛细管 内径越小或多孔介质的渗透率越小,则细菌的化学趋向性运移速度越小。细 菌以原油为碳源的化学趋向性系数随毛细管内径减小或多孔介质的渗透率减 小而增大。4.应用微观渗流物理模拟实验,观测到三种原油碳源微生物及其代谢产物提高 采收率的微观机理,包括微生物及其代谢产物剥离油膜和油珠机理、改变孔 道壁润湿性机理、堵塞大孔道机理以及微生物乳化启动剩余油机理等。5.应用处理随机性结构系统中流体运动的逾渗理论和方法,研究了微生物在多 孔介质中的化学趋向性运移,提出了一种描述微生物渗流的微观数值模拟方 法及软件,可以帮助计算预测多孔介质中的菌浓分布概率等。  还原

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{J1w-[0n1XcEj0【英文摘要】 In this paper, the methods of micro visualized observation, micro numerical simulation and mathematical physics were used, with three kinds of bacteria using crude oil as carbon source separated from the production water in an oilfield, to study the local enrichment laws of microbe and the metabolisms, the migration principles of microbial chemotaxis, the micro mechanisms of enhanced oil recovery, the estimating methods of microbial chemotaxis coefficients and the micro numerical simulation of bacterial flow through porous media. Furthermore, several methods were introduced and some systematic conclusions were also acquired.1. The chemotaxis motion of the microorganisms using crude oil as carbon source wasfound. When they were in the zone of the nutrient brine (the effective zone ofcarbon source dispersion)-water zone, and not far away from the oil-waterinterface, they made the irregular rolling motion, and a time later, they migrated to the interface directively.2. The visualized expe...更多riments indicated that, the microorganisms were able to migrateto the carbon source (oil-water interface) when they were in the water zone, and not far away from the oil-water interface. Not long time later, due to the continuous migration and not-stop reproduction, the microbial thalli were distributed widely in the confine between the initial places and the oil-water interface. And the distribution had evident laws:(1) There existed the grads of microbial concentration. After some time, from the initial thalli places to the oil-water interface, the distribution law of microbial concentration was that the concentration increased monotonicly from the minimum to the maximum, that was to say, the nearer to the oil-water interface, the bigger the microbial concentration, and the concentration was the biggest at the interface. Some time later, the concentration at any place increased to the highest, then it did not upgrade basically any more.(2) Bacteria tended to migrate into the three-phase boundary with oil-water-pore wall and get enriched, which was beneficial to the enhanced oil recovery of microbe and the metabolisms.(3) Within the scope of the effective nutriment concentration grads, the microbial motion velocity was not related with the distance from the oil-water interface at all and it was much influenced by the temperature, and there existed an optimum growing temperature. Under the optimum temperature, the motion velocity was the highest.(4) Between the initial bacterial places and the oil-water interface, there were the concentration grads of the microbial metabolisms, and the metabolic concentration was the highest at the oil-water interface.3. A system of methods to estimate the chemotaxis coefficients of microbe usingcrude oil as carbon source were constructed. The calculating examples demonstrated that, the smaller the capillary radius or the permeability of the porous media, the minor the motion velocity of microbial chemotaxis, and the chemotaxis coefficients would increased as the capillary radius or the permeability of the porous media became smaller.4. The physical simulation experiments of micro percolation were conducted toobserve the micro mechanisms of enhanced oil recovery by three microorganisms using crude oil as carbon source and the metabolisms, including peeling off the oil droplet by bacteria and the metabolisms, altering the wetability of pore surfaces, sealing the big orifices, emulsifying and starting the residual oil.5. The percolation theory and method to deal with the fluid motion in the stochasticstructure were taken use of to study the microbial chemotaxis motion in the porous media. Then a kind of simulation method of micro percolation to describe the microbial flow through porous media was proposed and the calculating software was also programmed, which could help to compute and predict the distribution probability of microbial concentration in the porous media.  还原水利论文7Fm%Kc{&zOE'l

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【中文关键词】 微生物提高原油采收率法; 浓度分布; 驱油机理; 实验观察; 化学趋向性; 逾渗; 分布概率水利论文3jqL8cx[H5m
【英文关键词】 microbial enhanced oil recovery; concentration distribution; oil-displacement mechanism; experimental observation; chemotaxis; percolation; distribution probability

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TAG: 郭尚平 采收率 微生物 景贵成 俞理
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