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河流生态环境需水理论方法及应用研究 【作者】丰华丽 【导师】王超

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【作者】丰华丽导师王超水利论文_/s#_'Dte
【作者基本信息】河海大学,环境工程,2002年,博士

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&QG`'McP*D H$d0【中文摘要】 生态需水问题是生态水文学的研究内容之一,它是水资源合理配置和生态环境建设的重要基础。目前生态环境需水研究刚刚起步,许多理论和研究方法都有待发展。本文在总结分析前人工作成果的基础上,对河流生态需水进行了深入的研究。主要创新点如下: 在概述国内外生态需水和环境需水的研究内容的基础上,区分了广义生态需水和狭义生态需水的不同、生态需水和生态用水的不同、生态需水和环境需水的不同。从生态学和水文学的角度分析了生态需水研究的理论基础,提出了生态需水研究要遵循生态学的整体性理论、物种多样性理论、物种耐性理论、耗散结构理论、景观生态学河流廊道理论及水文学的水文循环理论和水资源承载力理论。生态需水研究的理论基础,对合理地界定研究的时间尺度、空间尺度及保护目标具有重要的指导意义。 界定了自净需水和引水稀释用水的概念及其适用范围。在计算水环境容量的基础上,分析了点源污染和非点源污染对水质污染的贡献率,建立了内陆河段、河网化河段及潮汐河段的自净需水模型。指出了引水稀释提法的弊端,并对其正面效应和负面效应进行了剖析。提出了引水稀释适用的条件及选择污染物的原则,以湖泊为例建立了引水稀释用水模型。 根据河流廊道原理,...更多分析指出干旱区天然绿洲的实质就是河流廊道。提出了以河流廊道的生态需水作为天然绿洲生态需水的研究方法,以此建立了干旱区生态需水模型。并以额齐纳地区为例,进行了验证研究,结果与实际能很好地吻合,是直接求取干旱区生态需水的一种方法;另外,以非地带性植被的水分来源和河流廊道理论为基础,提出了不同保护距离的潜水埋深需求对应着不同的河岸处潜水埋深,以此建立了河岸潜水埋深、保护距离和保护距离处潜水埋深的数学模型,该模型能很好的反应实际情况,是间接寻求干旱区生态需水的一种方法。 分析了经济用水和生态用水间的关系,以及影响生态用水的自然因素和人为因素,提出了生态用水受社会系统中生态思维、管理体制,经济系统中下垫面改变、引水排污,自然系统中生态系统本身结构、环境因子等因素影响的概念性模型。在此基础上,提出了以生态需水比例作为评价指标,以生态用水比例计算自然生态系统对水资源的可得性,通过对生态用水比例与生态需水比例的比较评判来衡量流域可持续发展的研究方法。以七大流域为例,借鉴蒙大纳法,建立了河流生态需水比例的评价指标体系。通过对各流域生态用水比例的计算,以生态需水比例指标体系为比尺,衡量了各流域用水的可持续性问题,计算结果与实际情况能较好的吻合。  还原

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【英文摘要】 Ecological Water Requirement (EWR) is the main research content of Eco-Hydrology. It is important to the rational allocation and utilization of water resources and to the ecological environmental construction. Presently, the study about the ecological and environmental water requirement is underway, so the relevant theories and research methods are needed to develop immediately. Through analyzing and summarizing the achievements of the previous studies, this paper continued a deeper study than before.Firstly, this paper outlined the studies regarding the ecological and environmental water requirement to distinguish the broad sense and narrow sense of ecological water requirement, the ecological water requirement and ecological used water, and the ecological water requirement and environmental water requirement at national and international levels. From Ecologic and Hydrologic point of view, through analyzing the thyroidal on the basis of EWR, this paper firstly pointed out that the res...更多earch of EWR should follow the Holism theory, species diversity theory, Shelford theory, dissipation theory, river corridor theory of Landscape Ecology, the hydrological cycle theory and the carrying capacity theory of water resources. The thyroidal basis of the research methods about EWR directs the reasonable ascertainments of the time scale, space scale and protected projects in research.Secondly, this paper determined the difference between the water used for self-purging (WUS) and water transferred for purging and dilution (WTPD) and their proper application. Through computing the water environmental capacity, the respective contribution rates of the point and the non-point pollutant source were analyzed, self-purging and self-dilution models of inland rivers, river network and rivers affected by tides were developed in this paper. This paper pointed out the deficiency of the definition of WTPD and analyzed its positive and negative influences. As well, the paper provided the application conditions of WTPD and principles about how to choose pollutant indexes.According to the river corridor theory, it was derived that the natural oasis in arid area is the river corridor in fact. The paper proposed a research method considering EWR of the river corridor as EWR of the natural oasis and thus developed an EWR model for arid areas. The model was applied to Egia district as an instance to directly calculate the EWR of arid areas and the results met the practical condition very well.The paper further illustrated that the required buried depths of groundwater at different protected distances corresponded with the different buried depths of groundwater at the riverbank based on water sources of non-terrain vegetables and the river corridor theory. So a mathematical model was exploited according to the relationship among buried depths of groundwater respectively at the riverbank and at protected distances, and protected distances. This model is capable of reflecting the practical situation and is an indirect method for calculating EWR of the arid area.Lastly, the paper analyzed the relationship between the economical and ecological used water, the natural and human factors of the latter as well. A concept model was offered for ecological used water, which subjected to the ecological ideology and management system of human society, to the change of land, water transfer and waste discharge of economical society, and to the ecological system structure, environmental factors of natural society. On the basis of the above, ecological water requirement ratio was put forward firstly as an assessment factor and using the ecological used water ratio, the availability of water resources of the natural ecological system is derived. Comparison of the ratio of ecological used water and ecological water requirement also provided a research method of evaluating the river basin's sustainable development. Furthermore, an assessment index system of EWR of the river basin was proposed by referencing the Montana method. By taking the seven big ri  还原水利论文#] S GZ*p/}k

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【中文关键词】 生态需水; 生态用水; 生态需水理论基础; 自净需水; 引水稀释用水; 河流廊道; 潜水埋深; 生态需水和用水比例水利论文3C{Y#y.LkP+f&j
【英文关键词】 ecological water requirement; ecological used water; ecological water requirement theory basic; water requirement for self-purging; water transferred for purging and dilution; river corridor; depths of unconfined water; ratio of ecological water requirement and ecological used water水利论文 |6Xf2\n/D
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