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GIS和遥感辅助下流域模拟的空间离散化与参数化研究与应用 【作者】李硕 【导师】曾…

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,^ w.o%s+^ xg J0【作者】李硕导师】曾志远
w9P!MdOH0【作者基本信息】南京师范大学,地图学与地理信息系统,2002年,博士

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【中文摘要】 选择适宜的空间尺度,把气候、水文、地形、土壤、植被、人类经济活动等主要地理因素和过程通过抽象建立地学分析数学模型,进行定量运算,是实现地理过程高度定量化研究的有效途径。 本文以国家自然科学基金项目“流域土壤和水资源模拟模型的集成和系统化及其应用”为依托,选择美国农业部开发的流域尺度的地理过程模拟模型,在遥感和GIS技术的支持下,在江西兴国县的潋水河流域进行了多种地理过程的分布式模拟研究。研究工作主要围绕如何将流域科学地划分为地理上相对均一的离散单元以及离散单元的地理参数提取等问题而展开。 本文中的一些主要研究内容和研究成果如下所示: (1) 较为系统地研究了流域模型和流域模拟技术的特点和发展过程,尤其对于流域模拟和遥感、GIS技术的集成应用从理论到实践进行了完整的阐述,从实践中证明,流域模型和遥感、GIS技术的集成是流域模拟技术从集总式转向分布式发展的必经之途; (2) 应用了基于栅格的数字高程模型(DEM)的流域水文建模方法,进行了流域河网的自动生成,子流域的自动划分以及流域边界生成研究,将研究区(江西兴国县潋水河流域)最多离散成为102个子流域,649个水文响应单元,成功实现了流域...更多的空间离散化;在这个过程中,研究解决了平坦区河网精确生成和流域边界的误差改正等一系列技术难题; (3) 在研究区现有数据的基础上,应用遥感、GIS以及数理统计等多种技术手段提取了包括:地形、土壤、气象、土地利用等多方面模型运行所需要的参数,成功地实现了流域的空间参数化过程;并进行了土壤参数计算、气温、降雨量空间改正以及土地利用遥感监督分类等方面的研究; (4) 利用GIS的数据库功能,将参数化过程中提取的模型参数纳入到数据库中统一管理。按照模型要求建立了与参数内容相对应的数据库字段以及和空间属性相连接的对应表,解决了众多离散单元的自动赋值问题;按照离散单元之间的空间等级关系逐级向上演算实现了模拟结果的逐级空间集成; (5) 对研究区江西兴国县潋水河流域的多种地理过程进行了10年4个尺度的计算机模拟,取得了多种地理过程定量化模拟结果;4个空间尺度的年产水量模拟精度均达到了89%以上,年产沙量的最好模拟精度也达到75%以上;并利用模拟结果进行了潋水流域产沙量的空间分布研究; (6) 对研究区江西兴国县潋水河流域4个空间离散尺度下的模拟结果进行了对比分析,进行了不同离散尺度对模拟结果的影响研究,发现空间尺度的变化对产水量的模拟影响较小,对产沙量的模拟具有较为显著的影响,空间离散单元的增加,可以提高产沙量的模拟精度。  还原

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Fww!x,H0`i2pj0【英文摘要】 It is the effective way to realize the highly quantitative study on the geographical process that associates main geographical factors such as climate, hydrology, topographic features, soil, vegetation and human activities with geographical process for quantitatively calculation by selecting suitable spatial scales and using mathematic models based on computer.Distributed simulation study of multi-geographical process was carried out in the study area of Lianshui Basin, Xingguo County, Jiangxi province supported by RS and GIS, using the simulation models system developed by USDA. This project is funded by the national natural science fund titled "Integration and Systematization of Mathematic Models for Soil and Water Resources Study in a Basin and Its Application ". The main contents and research results are as follows:(1) The characteristics and the development of Basin models and Basin simulation technology were systematically studied in this dissertation. The application of Basin si...更多mulation integrated with RS and GIS technology was fully explained from theory to practice. It was proved by the practice that the integration of basin models, RS and GIS is indispensable for basin simulation technology shifting from the lumped to the distributed system.(2) The method of distributed hydrological modeling based on raster Digital Elevation Models (DEM) was applied to generate basin network, to divide sub-basin and generate basin boundary automatically. Through discretization at most 102 sub-basins and 649 Hydrological response units were produced in the study area and spatial discretization of the basin were successfully realized. A series of technological problems such as the accurate generation of basin network in plate area and error correction of basin boundary were solved in the research process.(3) Parameters for model running including topography, soil, climate and land use were extracted by means of RS, GIS and statistics methods using present data of study area, spatial parameterization process of the basin was successfully realized and soil parameters calculation, temperature, precipitation spatial correction and land use supervised classification were studied in this dissertation.(4) Using GIS database function, the model parameters extracted from the process parameterization were managed in the database. According to the model requirement, the database fields were set up corresponding to the contents of parameters and tables relevant to spatial features were also constructed and the auto-evaluation of discretization unit were solved. According to the grading spatial relationship, discretization unites were routed upwards and the spatial integration of the simulation results were gradually realized.(5) computer simulation of multi-geographical process in Lianshui basin was carried out using data of 10 years and 4 spatial scales and quantitative simulation results were obtained. The simulation accuracy of annual water yield for 4 spatial scales was above 89% and the best simulation accuracy of annual sediment yield was also above 75%. The spatial distribution of the sediment yield in the study area was analyzed using the simulation results.(6) The simulation results under the four spatial discretization scales were analyzed by compare study and the affect factors were also studied. It was found that the changes of the spatial scales have the smallest affect on water yield simulation but enjoy comparative higher affect on sediment yield. With the increase of the spatial discretization units, the simulation accuracy of sediment yield was also improved. It came to a conclusion that the sediment yield in Lianshui basin was with source limitation characteristic and channel transportation process had significant influence on the sediment yield in this dissertation.  还原

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myAx:q$q/v0【中文关键词】 流域模拟; 离散化; 参数化; 遥感; GIS水利论文(\-NE{B'\!Ox#@v
【英文关键词】 Basin Simulation; Discretization; Parameterization; Remote Sensing; GIS

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TAG: GIS 导师 流域 遥感 李硕
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