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基于GIS的黄土沟壑区两种尺度产流产沙数学模型研究与应用 【作者】杨涛 【导师】张鹰

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5Q_)?w Lw+_V D:Z0基于GIS的黄土沟壑区两种尺度产流产沙数学模型研究与应用水利论文S)MS+N}7o

*x$K5zg#S0【作者】杨涛导师张鹰
3} b;a(YB_$r8o0【作者基本信息】南京师范大学,自然地理学,2006年,博士水利论文3t7~Q T$uW)W

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Il)K#D T!l0【中文摘要】 论文首先从力学原理出发分析黄土丘陵沟壑区的坡面和沟道动力平衡条件,定性和定量讨论了降雨、坡度、土壤特性和植被对侵蚀产沙的影响和作用,并结合黄土沟壑区特点,探讨了坡面和沟道侵蚀的各个过程及其相互关联,为建立侵蚀产流产沙过程数学模型奠定一定理论基础。 对于小流域分布式产流产沙数学模型,本文以黄土丘陵沟壑区两个典型流域—岔巴沟流域和杏子河流域为研究对象,在采用GIS对坡度、侵蚀单元、土地利用和综合糙率等侵蚀产沙环境因子提取分析的基础上,针对研究区干旱少雨特点,首先采用超渗产流模型,建立该区基于网格的产流模型,建模过程中采取菲利浦下渗曲线作为下渗方程。根据运动波理论在全流域建立一维非恒定流的坡面流运动方程,然后采用Preissmann(SOGREAH)四点隐式差分进行离散和求解,从而建立基于网格的坡面汇流模型,利用该模型可计算出任意时刻、任意网格的水深、流速和流量。流域侵蚀产沙模型以分布式坡面流运动波数值模型为基础进行耦合求解,根据每个网格的各个时段的水深、流速、流量依次计算出网格的各个时段的产沙量。在输沙过程中采用坡面汇沙的滞后演算法分别对流域进行演算,然后将各个网格的产沙量错开若干个传播时...更多段Ts进行迭加,最终求得流域出口断面的产沙过程。本模型在岔巴沟流域和杏子河流域1970~2001年十七场径流和产沙过程的模拟和验证表明:效果令人满意。最后,在模拟结果的基础上,选择模型中若干重要参数,采用GLUE(普似然法)算法进行参数值分布空间和预报不确定性分析,分析并得到了模型参数的分布空间及模拟结果的置信水平。 基于GIS的中尺度流域产流产沙数学模型以大理河流域为对象,将研究对象划分为沟间地和沟坡地两种单元,将整个流域划分为沟间地、沟坡地及其它们组成的小流域和一个输水输沙沟道进行分别计算,其中涉及降雨因子、地貌因子等因子,分别计算其侵蚀产沙响应系数,对侵蚀产沙模型进行修正,从而建立了一个基于GIS的黄河多沙粗沙地区中尺度流域侵蚀产沙模型。  还原水利论文~ysei.n^*a1_

nYe.e Y0N-l$KA0【英文摘要】 On the basis of the principle for fluid mechanics, this paper firstly reviewed the mechanical balance condition for loess slope and gully slope area, then the influence to sediment yield from precipitation, slope, soil and vegetation was discussed in accordance with the local characteristic of loess hilly area. After that, the soil erosion and transport processes as well as interaction of loess slope and gully slope were investigated in order to provide necessary methodology for numerical modeling of runoff production, concentration and sediment yield.As for the distributed runoff and sediment yield model for small scale watershed, the primary purpose of this paper is aimed to improve our knowledge on distributed runoff production, concentration and sediment yield model coupling with RS and GIS tools. The Chabagou watershed and Xingzihe watershed, located in the middle stream of Yellow River, with extremely high soil loss rate in China, was selected as the test area to study the distri...更多buted runoff and sediment yield model in accordance with the local vegetation and land utilization characteristic on each grid. The model was combined with distributed runoff and sediment yield model, flow concentration and sediment transport model with the support of GIS technology. Excess runoff mode has been applied in runoff production model. The one dimesional kinematic wave theroy and the finite-difference method were used to simulate the overland flow. The calculation formulas of the soil erosion were deduced by means of energy balance principle. The runoff process coupled with sediment yield process at the watershed outlet can be routed from each cell respectively in Preissmann implicit scheme. According to the 17 storm and sediment events from 1970 to 2001 in both the two watersheds, simulated results are satisfactory. At last, the key and sensitive parameters of the model were selected for parameter uncertainty analysis based on GLUE(Generalized Likelihood Uncertainty Estimation) method in order to understand parameter calibration result.For the sediment yield modeling of meso-scale watershed, the Dalihe watershed, which as selected as the test area, can be classified as slope fields, gully fields, basic units and one channel for runoff concentration and sediment transport. The model includes two influence factors (Rainfall, landforms), four coefficients and thirteen relevant equations. The model, based on the physical process, was designated to estimate storm response in runoff and sediment yield. The prediction precision is above 55% according to model validation, so the model can be used for the purpose of soil erosion prediction in loess area with high and coarse sediment.  还原水利论文5O}l+nmQ#p:V?

5T [UC!])Z ta _0【中文关键词】 黄土丘陵沟壑区; 产流产沙; 分布式; 中尺度; 地理信息系统; 不确定性分析
2|!?p9^P m&l0【英文关键词】 Loess hilly region; Runoff production and sediment yield; Distributed; Meso-scale; GIS; Uncertainty analysis

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TAG: GIS 沟壑区 数学模型 张鹰 杨涛
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